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submitted by usmleuser007(370),
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oSonmee raec ot pliaxen why mte[i ot et-ytasseadt occnnn]otitear is not the crctroe nseawr?

omerta  In pharmacokinetics, steady state refers to the situation where the overall intake of a drug is fairly in dynamic equilibrium with its elimination. In practice, it is generally considered that steady state is reached when a time of 4 to 5 times the half-life for a drug after regular dosing is started. The time to reach steady state is defined by the elimination half-life of the drug. So in a patient with renal dysfunction, the plasma half-life is going to be prolonged and the time to reach steady state will increase proportionally. +11  
belleng  loading dose is independent of the concentration of the drug in the plasma and the dose frequency...this is why you give a patient who is seizing a huge dose of anti-seizure meds in order to reach a theraputic range on the first dose despite the high risk of toxicity and side effects...primary objective when seizing is stoping the seizure so you want to increase the dose response curve with a massive load +  
belleng  loading dose is independent of DOSE (should have said dose, not concentration in plasma) & FREQUENCY +  


submitted by usmleuser007(370),
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eeoonSm earc ot xelipna hwy miet[ to t-tdsayeaste accn]nntortioe is nto het cctrreo w?rasen

omerta  In pharmacokinetics, steady state refers to the situation where the overall intake of a drug is fairly in dynamic equilibrium with its elimination. In practice, it is generally considered that steady state is reached when a time of 4 to 5 times the half-life for a drug after regular dosing is started. The time to reach steady state is defined by the elimination half-life of the drug. So in a patient with renal dysfunction, the plasma half-life is going to be prolonged and the time to reach steady state will increase proportionally. +11  
belleng  loading dose is independent of the concentration of the drug in the plasma and the dose frequency...this is why you give a patient who is seizing a huge dose of anti-seizure meds in order to reach a theraputic range on the first dose despite the high risk of toxicity and side effects...primary objective when seizing is stoping the seizure so you want to increase the dose response curve with a massive load +  
belleng  loading dose is independent of DOSE (should have said dose, not concentration in plasma) & FREQUENCY +  


submitted by drdoom(805),
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uoY ehav to kinht otabu tihs iunsg eth conectp fo IOTLIANNODC OYBRIIT.PBAL ohrnAte yaw to kas stih tyep fo utniesqo si klei :shti I“ sohw uyo a aetipnt htwi esnnospoaut mrhonpxotuea. Wichh ehrot thign is mtos lkyeli ot be rtue abotu taht s”npeor? Or you nac eparhs ti htees wsya:

  • inevG a INNOTICDO (eooupnsnats onmpeu,) awth etorh ininfgd si tmos klleiy to be eth s?eca
  • nGevi a oopl of epople thwi oonnatsspeu axhotnor,puem htaw toher hntig is stmo liklye ot be reut botua h?tem

nI threo rdosw, of all eoplpe hwo dne up hitw tnnoeuasops mo,peun hte osmt ncmomo ohret hnigt btuoa tehm si ttah hety ear EMAL a&p;m HITN.

fI I aevg ouy a cktbeu fo snnooatsupe enpuom pstatien -- nda yuo erheadc royu ndha ni rheet nad plelud one tou -- hwat carsnoie ulodw be mero mmo:onc In oyru nadh you hvea a kremso or ni royu andh ouy ehva a hnti l?mea sIt’ hte .tlrate

someduck3  Is this the best approach to all of the "strongest predisposing risk factor" type questions? +  
drdoom  There is a town of 1,000 men. Nine hundred of them work as lawyers. The other 100 are engineers. Tom is from this town. He rides his bike to work. In his free time, he likes solving math puzzles. He built his own computer. What is Tom's occupation most likely to be? Answer: Tom is most likely to be a lawyer! Don't let assumptions distract you from the overwhelming force of sheer probability! "Given that Tom is from this town, his most likely occupation (from the available data) = lawyer." +4  
drdoom  There is a town of 1,000 spontaneous pneumo patients. Six hundred are tall, thin and male. The other 400 are something else. Two hundred of the 1,000 smoke cigarettes. The other 800 do not. What risk factor is most strongly associated with spontaneous pneumo? (Answer: Not being a smoker! ... because out of 1,000 people, the most common trait is NOT smoking [800 members].) +4  
impostersyndromel1000  this is WILD! thanks guy +3  
belleng  beautiful! also, i think about odds ratio vs. relative risk...odds ratio is retrospective of case-control studies to find risk factor or exposure that correlates with grater ratio of disease. relative risk is an estimation of incidence in the future when looking at different cohort studies. +  
drdoom  @impostersyndrome I love me some probability and statistics. Glad my rant was useful :P +  
hyperfukus  @drdoom i hate it which is why your rant was extremely useful lol i learned a ton thanks dr.doom! +1  
dubywow  I caught he was thin. The only reason I didn't pick Gender and body habitus is because he was not overly tall (5'10"). I talked myself out of it because I thought the body habitus was too "normal" because he was not both thin AND tall. Got to keep telling myself to not think too hard on these. Thanks for the explanation. +1  
taediggity  It isn't just that this person has Ehlers Danlos and they're more prone to spontaneous pneumo??? +1  


submitted by usmleuser007(370),
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eoNt: hte siqseount tdtaes rrase"ptroiy utsr"b ssggetnigu na RUT eioiftncn.

)1 ihts elrus tuo hyignnat ubt pesroatryri onctiinfe non( erp tfocnneii: .E loic, .E efcum)ai

2) DP6G einfcdcyie emor isbsutecelp ot atscalea vtoepisi roi smasgn -- htsi luers uto l(la respt gr)imasons

3) Left thwi H. elzinfneau a± r.hSapt aeuusr T(BOH ear catalase ps)otevii

)4 eanucsEptlad mngroias ear tsom rcnniconeg nehw ereht is anpaiels.

imnotarobotbut  Respiratory burst has nothing to do with a respiratory infection. It describes the process of phagocytosing a bacteria and using NADPH oxidase/ROS to lyse it +5  
belleng  Aspergillus is still in the running, it is catalase positive as well...but not a choice +