to snoo-finity ... and beyond!
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I think this is it
-pulmonary fibrosis increases elastic recoiland widens airway 2/2 increased outward force (radial traction) by fibrotic tissue thus decreasing airflow resistance thus supernormal expiratory flow rates (higher than nl following correction for lung volume)
did you figure out the the ratio by actually divding out the numbers since the q didn't give it as a ratio? also what resource tells us what prerenal spec gravity should be?
I just usually remember from class that spec grav 1.001-1.010 is considered dilute urine, and anything 1.025 and above is concentrated. For this question specifically, I think I remember there only being one option that even had the ratio >=20, all of the others were like 15 or less, so just have to rule them out.
Very helpful video for acute kidney injury: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMp6IxDKK2Q
Another explanation that helped me is that inability to concentrate the urine means something is wrong with the kidneys. If you have dilute urine, or the spec gravity is between 1.001-1.010 in someone with low urine output it suggests something is wrong with the concentration mechanisms of the kidney. Because this person had congestive heart failure we were already looking for something that matched up with prerenal azotemia so we can pretty much get rid of all the answer choices that suggest other azotemias. Then finally to get the precise answer I looked at the BUN/Cr ratio which you would expect to be high(>= 20).
Would fully recommend the OnlineMedEd video on AKI. Goes through the differential, lab results, treatment, etc in a very clear and concise manner.
I think that they just wanted you to notice the **calcifications**. Per FA, "calcifications are common in craniopharyngiomas," whereas I don't think you'd expect to see calcifications in a prolactinoma.
also the option is prolactinoma not broad pituitary calcifications and he doesnt show any specific signs of high prolactin