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 +1  (nbme21#5)

Jambo is right. I was reading through Goljan Rapid Review and he states that the lungs are the most common site of metastasis for osteosarcoma.


 +3  (nbme21#14)

The patient suffered from Immune Thrombocytopenia. autoantibodies against the glycoproteins GP2B/3A.

On labs, you’ll see: increase in megakaryocytes; on the question stem they’re described as “rare but large.” Megakaryocytes are not suppressed.

ergogenic22  isolated thrombocytopenia (low platelets) should be highly suggestive of ITP https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p612.html

 +5  (nbme21#28)

I figured, glycine-X-Y is technically considered a “primary amino acid structure of a protein” since the definition of a Primary structure of a protein is “a linear chain of amino acids.” If you mess with the Primary structure, as in the question stem, you cannot form the Secondary structure of the protein, which is determined by the hydrogen-bonding which occurs between the peptide backbone, independent of the R groups. I hope this made sense.

From wikipedia: “Secondary structure is formally defined by the pattern of hydrogen bonds between the amino hydrogen and carboxyl oxygen atoms in the peptide backbone.” (emphasis mine)


 +6  (nbme21#35)

AV Fistulas re-rout blood from the arterial system to the venous system, by-passing the Arterioles = Increase PL ---> INCREASE VR. All in all = Increase CO.

According to UWorld, the arterioles are a major source of resistance ... so bypassing the arterioles results in a decrease in Total Peripheral Resistance ... causing an increase in the rate and volume of blood returning to the heart. I am pretty sure there is more to the physiology behind this, but I hope this explained a little.

big92  "Immediately following creation, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is associated with an increase in cardiac output (CO), achieved predominantly through a reduction in systemic vascular resistance, increased myocardial contractility, and an increase in stroke volume (SV) and heart rate. Over the following week, circulating blood volume increases in conjunction with increases in atrial and brain natriuretic peptides. These alterations are associated with early increases in left ventricular (LV) filling pressure with the potential for resultant impact on atrial and ventricular chamber dimensions and function." (PMID: 25258554) There's also another study by Epstein from the 1950s looking at the effects of AVF's effect on CO in men (PMID: 13052718). Apparently, the increase in resting CO is a big problem because it can lead to high-output cardiac failure (LVH).
hungrybox  Jesus big92 you went in on the research lmao u must be MSTP
temmy  big92 you are right. that is why pagets disease pagets have high output cardiac failure because of the av shunts.




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