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 +1  (nbme21#35)

AV Fistulas re-rout blood from the arterial system to the venous system, by-passing the Arterioles = Increase PL ---> INCREASE VR. All in all = Increase CO.

According to UWorld, the arterioles are a major source of resistance ... so bypassing the arterioles results in a decrease in Total Peripheral Resistance ... causing an increase in the rate and volume of blood returning to the heart. I am pretty sure there is more to the physiology behind this, but I hope this explained a little.


 +1  (nbme21#28)

I figured, glycine-X-Y is technically considered a “primary amino acid structure of a protein” since the definition of a Primary structure of a protein is “a linear chain of amino acids.” If you mess with the Primary structure, as in the question stem, you cannot form the Secondary structure of the protein, which is determined by the hydrogen-bonding which occurs between the peptide backbone, independent of the R groups. I hope this made sense.

From wikipedia: “Secondary structure is formally defined by the pattern of hydrogen bonds between the amino hydrogen and carboxyl oxygen atoms in the peptide backbone.” (emphasis mine)


 +0  (nbme21#5)

Jambo is right. I was reading through Goljan Rapid Review and he states that the lungs are the most common site of metastasis for osteosarcoma.


 +1  (nbme21#14)

The patient suffered from Immune Thrombocytopenia. autoantibodies against the glycoproteins GP2B/3A.

On labs, you’ll see: increase in megakaryocytes; on the question stem they’re described as “rare but large.” Megakaryocytes are not suppressed.