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submitted by patricknguyen(-12),
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O ytpe paesintt hvae rpmoerf gIG iant A nait B. otN MIg tibiasShlrdyo on"et rtfea rsuofnsta"in siear pu upssociin for xanahsaiylp. n o isgn of -s&ilgoety;msh aofrv aypsxahlani due ot gIA i=fccie;ydgt&en ecoertff lecl is tsaM lelsc

eclipse  they have IgG and IgM +2  
kpjk  if it had been anaphylaxis- there would have been urticaria and pruritis +1  
usmile1  wow I've never seen an answer on here be just so wrong +  


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esEonvlep enietbf teh sruvi ni hatt hte isuvr liwl olko kiel eht th,so icftnaaigtli fsniu.o eeworH,v an eeoldpnev srvui is ylleegran less tebasl nath a naekd ieaclrdhaos viurs (daekn srievsu are nlelgyear lc)erioah.sda

docred123  So do these patients have h.Flu? What was the giveaway? Thanks +  
mousie  I chose Enveloped simply bc it said dies when heated, not sure if there where any other clues to narrow this down or make me feel more confident in my choice but I went with it anyway +11  
eclipse  I don't think they expected us to narrow down the answer to a specific virus. Enveloped viruses tend to be less stable (?) than the non-enveloped ones and don't survive as well under harsher environments (outside human's body, heat, etc.) +2  
peridot  To add on, I also have no idea what virus this could be but the question stem does say "A previously unidentified virus is recovered from urine specimens" making me think that it's not something we're supposed to have know about, unless I'm totally understanding it wrong. +  


submitted by enbeemee(13),
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i get yhw s'ti ilena,llgf tub is het ficicesp naoers that LSP si rogwn si ecsubea st'i sutj ont owh eht enavcci is dmea? SPL uwodl oals ecliti an mmniue cntai,ero itr?gh

nor16  Lipid A of LPS can be sensed by CD14 of macrophages causing shock, its not a protein, so no immune reaction as in vaccination (humoral, IgG class switch via Th2 and B Cells). +2  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
hyperfukus  TLRs recognize common motifs called pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other pathogens. TLR signaling in the modulation of innate immunity + adaptive immunity against pathogens, TLR agonists: CpG-DNA, flagellin, and lipid became essential candidates of effective+safe vaccine adjuvants. TLR agonists improve the efficacy of vaccine, reducing TCR-based selection thresholds and enhancing the magnitude and quality of memory T-cell response. +2  
hyperfukus  some extra info in case they ask another annoying q +3  
aturner713  Not sure if this matters for this or not, but Neisseria spp. have lipoOLIGOsaccharide (LOS) and not lipoPOLYsaccharide (LPS) +1  


submitted by enbeemee(13),
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i etg hyw ist' ilagelfnl, ubt si het ccpsiefi eosnra htat PSL is ogwrn si ebcasue 'tsi usjt not hwo teh cvcaine si dema? LPS duwlo laos cleiti na neimum art,noeic irht?g

nor16  Lipid A of LPS can be sensed by CD14 of macrophages causing shock, its not a protein, so no immune reaction as in vaccination (humoral, IgG class switch via Th2 and B Cells). +2  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
hyperfukus  TLRs recognize common motifs called pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other pathogens. TLR signaling in the modulation of innate immunity + adaptive immunity against pathogens, TLR agonists: CpG-DNA, flagellin, and lipid became essential candidates of effective+safe vaccine adjuvants. TLR agonists improve the efficacy of vaccine, reducing TCR-based selection thresholds and enhancing the magnitude and quality of memory T-cell response. +2  
hyperfukus  some extra info in case they ask another annoying q +3  
aturner713  Not sure if this matters for this or not, but Neisseria spp. have lipoOLIGOsaccharide (LOS) and not lipoPOLYsaccharide (LPS) +1