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O type patients have preform IgG anti A anti B. Not IgM antibodies "Shortly after transfusion" raise up suspicion for anaphylaxis. no sign of hemolysis-> favor anaphylaxis due to IgA deficiency=> effector cell is Mast cells

eclipse  they have IgG and IgM +  


Envelopes benefit the virus in that the virus will look like the host, facilitating fusion. However, an enveloped virus is generally less stable than a naked icosahedral virus (naked viruses are generally icosahedral).

docred123  So do these patients have h.Flu? What was the giveaway? Thanks +  
mousie  I chose Enveloped simply bc it said dies when heated, not sure if there where any other clues to narrow this down or make me feel more confident in my choice but I went with it anyway +3  
eclipse  I don't think they expected us to narrow down the answer to a specific virus. Enveloped viruses tend to be less stable (?) than the non-enveloped ones and don't survive as well under harsher environments (outside human's body, heat, etc.) +  


submitted by enbeemee(4),

i get why it's flagellin, but is the specific reason that LPS is wrong is because it's just not how the vaccine is made? LPS would also elicit an immune reaction, right?

nor16  Lipid A of LPS can be sensed by CD14 of macrophages causing shock, its not a protein, so no immune reaction as in vaccination (humoral, IgG class switch via Th2 and B Cells). +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
hyperfukus  TLRs recognize common motifs called pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other pathogens. TLR signaling in the modulation of innate immunity + adaptive immunity against pathogens, TLR agonists: CpG-DNA, flagellin, and lipid became essential candidates of effective+safe vaccine adjuvants. TLR agonists improve the efficacy of vaccine, reducing TCR-based selection thresholds and enhancing the magnitude and quality of memory T-cell response. +  
hyperfukus  some extra info in case they ask another annoying q +  


submitted by enbeemee(4),

i get why it's flagellin, but is the specific reason that LPS is wrong is because it's just not how the vaccine is made? LPS would also elicit an immune reaction, right?

nor16  Lipid A of LPS can be sensed by CD14 of macrophages causing shock, its not a protein, so no immune reaction as in vaccination (humoral, IgG class switch via Th2 and B Cells). +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
eclipse  actually they do use LPS as adjuvant in vaccines +1  
hyperfukus  TLRs recognize common motifs called pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other pathogens. TLR signaling in the modulation of innate immunity + adaptive immunity against pathogens, TLR agonists: CpG-DNA, flagellin, and lipid became essential candidates of effective+safe vaccine adjuvants. TLR agonists improve the efficacy of vaccine, reducing TCR-based selection thresholds and enhancing the magnitude and quality of memory T-cell response. +  
hyperfukus  some extra info in case they ask another annoying q +