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 +0  (nbme21#44)
  • R Lower quadrantanopia = C/L Parietal Lesion/MCA via Dorsal optic radiation.

  • If top quarter was gone, then it would be C/L temporal lesion via meyer loop.


 +0  (nbme21#41)

Heme Mnemonics

  • Sideroblastic Anemia - ALAS (Ends in S = Sideroblastic)
  • Lead Poisoning - ALAD & Ferrochelatase. (ALeAD, FerrocheLEADtase)
  • Cytoplasmic Intermediates: Purposefully (PBD) Hold 3Urine (UPD) Cups
  • Porphobilinogen PBD → Hydroxymethylbilane → Uroporphyrinogen 3 UPD → Copropohyrinogen 3

 +0  (nbme21#50)

Thoracic Cross Section Reference

  • Stem clue: Loss of vibration sense = Dorsal Columns
  • Image clue: pink (damaged) ventral horn area = gracile fasiculus (lumbar + sacral)
  • Gracile fasciculus in the dorsal column/medial lemniscus tracts carries information from the lower parts of the body (from T6 & below)

 +1  (nbme21#45)
  • Normocytic Intrinsic Hemolytic Anemia: Reticulocyte >>2.5%
  • PEP --> Pyruvate (last step of Glycolysis) second ATP producing step
  • Mature RBC require pyruvate kinase without it they depend on the anaerobic generation of ATP
  • With insufficient ATP, all active processes in the cell come to a halt. Sodium potassium ATPase pumps are the first to stop: increase intracellular K+, water leaves cell with Na+. Cell Shrinks & dies. Body is deficient in RBC + destroyed by lack of ATP = Hemolytic Anemia
  • Inheritance: AR

 +1  (nbme21#36)
  • Gastrin released by G Cells pyloric antrum, duodenum, stomach stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl.
  • Parietal Cells (Fundus + Cardia) epithelial cells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor. They activate gastric chief cells to secrete digestive enzymes.
  • Gastric Chief Cells (Mucosa): releases pepsinogen and chymosin

Labels

  • A Mucous Neck Cell
  • B Nucleus of Parietal Cell
  • C Nucleus of Chief Cell
  • D Nucleus of Endothelial Cell
  • E Nucleus of Fibroblast

Credit to Histo_Man/reddit


 +0  (nbme21#24)

Transplant Rejections (p.119)

  • Hyperacute - Minutes pre-existing Ab attack new organ Ag + activate complement T2
  • Acute - Weeks CD8 +/- CD4 bind organ MHC. T4
  • Chronic - Months/years CD4s can activate macrophages and mediate damage T4, or activate B cells --> Ab --> damage graft. T2 or T4
  • GVH - Time varies, organ with T-cells grow and reject foreign host. T4

Transplant Types

  • Autologous Self skin grafts
  • Allogenic Normal organ transplant
  • syngeneic graft (isograft) Monozygotic twins
  • xenograft animal to human heart valves

ABCD Hypersensitivity (p.112 FA2020)

  • T1 : Anaphylactic & Atopic
  • T2: (anti)Body-mediated
  • T3: Complex (Immune)
  • T4: Delayed Cell Mediated

 +1  (nbme20#33)

Severity of mitochondrial diseases is directly related to the proportion of abnormal to normal mitochondria within patient cells.

Heteroplasmy having different mitochondrial genomes in a single cell.

Homoplasmy in contrast, is seen in healthy tissue where mitochondrial DNA is identical.

UWorld explanation ID 1935. For those visually inclined.





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