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Comments ...

 +0  (nbme24#10)

http://www.lumen.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Radio/curriculum/Surgery/aneurysm2.htm

hope this helps everyone, even the ones that just "like" everything


 +1  (nbme24#17)

so, the Key words that no one is mentioning : communicating hydrocephalus

the pathophys goes like this :

an inflammatory setting (i.e., subarachnoid hemorrhage) yield fibrosis / scarring of the arachnoid granulations => impaired CSF drainage

the key points / concepts they are trying to test here : 1. do you know what communicating hydrocephalus (without them telling you those words) 2. do you know what's the pathophysiology (of communicating hydrocephalus) is ?


 +0  (nbme22#32)

Wallerian Degeneration : axonal degeneration distal to site of transection + proximal axonal retraction

Axotomy (axonal tran-section) of peripheral nerves results in, Schwann cells : a. breaking down myelin into small fragments and englufs it b. recruiting macrophages to dispose of axonal debri c. producing growth factors to promote regeneration of axons


 +0  (nbme22#43)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zlozkdj6wjU

Posterior cord Lesions are called: Radial Plus Palsy.

Cuz Posterior cord has BOTH Radial Nerve & Axillary nerve & cuz they are the 2 terminal branches that come off the posterior cord, so Sx include: triceps & wrist weakness, limitations finger extension indicate injury to radial nerve is located above innervation of triceps Injury of radial nerve occurs in axilla / above weakness of wrist, finger extension Axillary N. injury : weakness of abduction (paralysis of deltoid muscle), sensory shoulder loss. Axillary nerve also innervate teres minor muscle.

Hope this helps


 +0  (nbme22#28)

Hemochromatosis (Auto Recessive HFE Gene on Ch.6) Labs :

↑↑ Serum Iron & Ferritin & Transferrin saturation

↓TIBC


 +0  (nbme22#3)

Injection = ONLY IgG
Vs Oral = IgG & IgA

Cholera is transmitted via GI (oral) route , so you'd need the IgA protection, since it's mostly IgA that protects from GIT pathogens


 +0  (nbme22#1)

i kinda of feel "odd" asking this question : but the patient had an MI 6 months ago, so why would it be unlikely that he was told to "restrict salt, restrict fluids (water) " ??

Guess what i'm asking is : what makes choice E such an unlikely choice (JVD, bi-basilar crackles, peripheral edema) ?

& @meningitis : his bp is 135/82 mmHg ... why is that "HIGH" ??





Subcomments ...

submitted by keycompany(111),

Image shows Crescent Sign, a common finding in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms due to mural thrombus occlusion.

happysingh  crescent sign is a finding on radiographs that is associated with avascular necrosis, NOT aneurysms !!! what you're seeing is Calcification of wall of the aortic aneurysm +  


submitted by whoissaad(10),

Artery of ductus deferens is a branch of infeior vesical artery. So why is B wrong?

happysingh  the question is asking about "adequate arterial supply" +  


Some other endocrine like cells and disorders for reference:

  1. Salt-and-pepper chromatin (fine granular cytoplasm) in Endocrine tumors:

  2. Medullary thyroid carcinoma

  3. neuroendocrine tumors and pheochromocytoma
  4. Carcinoid Tumor (serotonin) --- (also has sheets of uniform cells)
  5. Small Cell Carcinoma of lungs = Small, blue cells with scant cytoplasm and granular chromatin) = flat, oval-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei

  6. Small Blue Cells

  7. Ewing sarcoma (anaplastic malignant tumor)
  8. SCC of lungs
  9. flat, oval-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei
happysingh  i've never heard of " 6. Small Blue Cells" cancer / tumor / carcinoma .... +1  
niboonsh  might want to look at fa pg 665 +  


Good fact to commit to memory: you lose bicarb in the stool (hence why diarrhea causes nonanion gap metabolic acidosis), and especially lose potassium with laxative abuse (as mentioned in the question stem). https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acid-base-and-electrolyte-abnormalities-with-diarrhea

sbryant6  I'm going to go take a big bicarbonate poop now. +4  
happysingh  i would suggest that you look into it a bit more. Why ? Had an nbme question (which confused the shit out of me) cuz, Bluemic Pt. who was abusing Laxatives (had the up & down arrows) and this is what it gave : Laxative Abuse — Metabolic Alkalosis :   ↓K+     ↑Cl-                   ↑pH    ↓HCO3- so one of the points of distinction IS the increase in Cl- with laxative abuse (vs. vomiting, which was a knee-jerk reaction when i hear bulimia) +