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 +1  (nbme23#37)

So a simpler way than all the math being done is understanding what CI means.

CI - range of values w/in which the true mean of the population is expected fall

So a CI of 95% will be more precise and have a narrow range compared to a CI of 99% will be less precise because its including more values in and result in a wider range.

So if CI of 95% is 110 to 116 then a CI of 99% has to be a range that is wider... 108 to 118


 +1  (nbme23#44)

Irradiation of food products is one way to limit the risk of germ contamination and food poisoning. In the United States, some foods, such as spices, are routinely irradiated. Irradiated meats and other foods are also widely available. Because radiation is known to cause cancer, there has been concern that food irradiation may present a cancer risk. However, radiation does not remain in foods that have been irradiated

According to American Cancer Society... Learned something new

nukie404  I wonder though, is it not possible for irradiated food to change in their protein structure, possibly somehow affect us? Some suggest Regardless I guess since it as irradiate with gamma radiation, there's no chance of the radiation staying in the food. In that sense I guess the answer makes sense but...

 +0  (nbme22#16)

The mother is Rh - & fetus is Rh +

pg 397 FA 2019 Administration of anti-D IgG to Rh - pregnant mother during 3rd trimester & early postpartum period (if fetus Rh+)

Prevents maternal anti-D IgG production

anti-D IgG = O, Rh -


 +1  (nbme22#1)

This is another question testing the concept of spatial anatomy. If the surgeon is lifting the liver and then the bleed went from a small amount to a sudden massive hemorrhage, clearly this is implying the bleed is occuring behind the liver.

What structure is behind the liver? IVC

What connects to the IVC from the liver? Hepatic veins

Also the idea that the patient has been bleeding for 6 hours because thats how long it took until the exploratory laparomaty was prefromed means the bleed is most likely from a low pressure system... venous system.


 +0  (nbme22#30)

The question here stated that the patient was stabbed beneath the 12th rib grazing the inferior pole of the left kidney.

From this you have to know the anatomical associations with the left kidney. The left kidney is in contact with the spleen, stomach & splenic flexure.

Out of these 3 options you have the stomach and Splenic flexure anterior to the kidney but what makes the splenic flexure the best answer is the description of where the he was stabbed. Stomach will be higher up than the splenic flexure.

Apply the same concept to the left kidney!

Hope this helps


 +0  (nbme22#12)

Warfarin inhibits Vit K dependent synthesis of factors & proteins.

Vit K is necessary for the maturation of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X and protein C & S

So a drug that can inhibit the carboxylation of precursor proteins or in other words inhibit the maturation of the clotting factors will decrease the risk of thrombosis in this patient.


 +0  (nbme22#12)

Warfarin inhibits Vit K dependent synthesis of factors & proteins.

Vit K is necessary for the maturation of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X and protein C & S

So a drug that can inhibit the carboxylation of precursor proteins or in other words inhibit the maturation of the clotting factors will decrease the risk of thrombosis in this patient.


 +1  (nbme22#25)

In a pancreatic B cell glucose enters via GLUT 2 and enters glycolysis. This causes the increased concentration of ATP in the cell causes the closure of ATP sensitive K+ channels. When this happens the cells becomes depolarized allowing Voltage gated Ca2+ channels to be open. The Ca2+ allows for exocytosis of insulin into the blood vessel.

Hence the answer here... Fusion of an intracellular vesicle with the plasma membrane.

pg 324 FA 2019 has the image


 +1  (nbme21#29)

This is a picture of Giardia lamblia… caused by drinking contaminated water with cysts.

Multinucleated trophozoites

Rx -- Metronidazole -- forms toxic free radical metabolites in the bacterial cell that damage DNA = BACTERICIDAL


 +0  (nbme21#42)

pg 607 FA -- Cleft lip & cleft palate have distinct, multifactorial etiologies, but often occur together


 +0  (nbme20#18)

The question is asking if you did an immunohistochemical labeling of the neoplasm what are you going to target with the use of antibodies. Basically you want the antibodies you have labeled binding to what?

Since this is ZES -- a gastrin secreting tumor -- you want antibodies to gastrin to see where exactly this tumor is coming from


 +0  (nbme20#44)

I think it has to do with the surgery. Getting a gastric bypass or bariatric surgery means you no longer allowing contents to pass through the duodenum. So that would mean if you had a starchy meal you would not be able to release the appropriate enzymes from the pancreas to allow for digestion.

Please correct me if I'm wrong!


 +0  (nbme20#48)

In 2019 FA Strawberry hemangioma -- it appears early in life, grows rapidly and regresses spontaneously by 5-8 years old

So in 5 years this hemangioma will spontaneously involute





Subcomments ...

submitted by seagull(420),

Hardy-Weinberg equation = 1= P^2 + 2pq + q^2

P^2 = 1/10,000 = 1/100

Then remember P + q = 1 ------> 1/100 + q = 1 (q = 99/100)

Lastly plug back into Hardy-Weinberg Equation as:

2pq = Heterozygote carrier

(2 x 1/100 x 99/100 = 2/100 = 1/50)

link981  I think q should be 1/100. You got p and q mixed up. +  
humble_station  Because p = 99/100, you can just make it 1. Then just do 2 x (1/100) and you get 1/50 +  
humble_station  Because p = 99/100, you can just make it 1. Then just do 2 x (1/100) and you get 1/50 +  


submitted by seagull(420),

Hardy-Weinberg equation = 1= P^2 + 2pq + q^2

P^2 = 1/10,000 = 1/100

Then remember P + q = 1 ------> 1/100 + q = 1 (q = 99/100)

Lastly plug back into Hardy-Weinberg Equation as:

2pq = Heterozygote carrier

(2 x 1/100 x 99/100 = 2/100 = 1/50)

link981  I think q should be 1/100. You got p and q mixed up. +  
humble_station  Because p = 99/100, you can just make it 1. Then just do 2 x (1/100) and you get 1/50 +  
humble_station  Because p = 99/100, you can just make it 1. Then just do 2 x (1/100) and you get 1/50 +  


submitted by yb_26(43),
  • binding to the MHC class II receptor and triggering the release of cytokines - superantigens

  • binding to the neuromuscular junction and prevention of ACh release - botulinum toxin

  • blockage of a GTP-binding protein resulting gin the accumulation of cAMP - pertussis toxin

  • blockage of presynaptic inhibition of spinal motor reflexes - tetanus toxin

  • prevention of protein synthesis by blocking elongation of the polypeptide chain - diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A

thomasburton  Not sure I agree with the second one, M.O.A for botulinum is cleave of SNARE protein preventing pre-synaptic ACH release. Think the second one almost describes something like sux or some other deporalising nicotinic drug. +  
humble_station  You are right but to get the muscle spasms, trismus & seizures it has to inhibit GABA & Glycine release from Renshaw cells Cleaving the snare proteins will cause paralysis +  


submitted by inmyblood(0),

What is the letter Y indicating in the picture? is it the large intestine?

humble_station  For this answer to make sense to me, Y should be the beginning of the large intestine like the terminal ileum/cecum leading up to the ascending colon +