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Contributor score: 19
Okay i might be retarded, but why i can’t understand that they r asking about the thing that is damaged ? 😂😂
Seriously! The question says "the goal of treatment is the protection of which of the following structures?" If too much O2 damages the retina, how is this treatment supposed to be protective to the retina?
I think too much oxygen would be with the ventilator having a high FiO2 setting, which they don't mention here but I'm guessing thats the thing they're controlling to avoid oxygen toxicity?
they didn't give the patient fio2 100%, question asks the reason for it. but in a very stupid way
Supplemental O2 may also cause bronchopulmonary dysplasia or intraventricular hemorrhage (germinal matrix, located in subventricular zone NOT choroid plexus)
Hmm I don't think so. The answer is "ureter" (singular) which would not result in bilateral hydronephrosis.
If it is out of FA 2019, could someone give the page number to reference? Hydronephrosis' full definition is given on page 587 and makes no mention of invasive cervical carcinoma.
p631 → Pap smear can detect cervical dysplasia before it progresses to invasive carcinoma. Diagnose via colposcopy and biopsy. Lateral invasion can block ureters - hydronephrosis - renal failure.
It's also in Pathoma page 140 in the 2018 edition!
Also, just to add, FA specifies that Nucleus ambiguus effects (dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag reflex) are specific to PICA lesions.
Thanks for the input. I have always found this topic to be tricky and just came across this article that helped me out a ton regarding the rule of 4's hoscyamine mentions above. https://rdcu.be/bLjOB
if still confused, a better explanation can be found here
i found this image to be helpful in remembering which nerves do what on which receptor. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/JwaeWXhklio/maxresdefault.jpg
Also, question said there was a deficiency in NADH dehydrogenase activity which is another fancy way of saying complex I in the mitochondria.
That unaffected male really threw me off... : (
It was pure MELAS description. the unaffected male threw me off