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 +0  (nbme18#30)

Could someone explain why this choice is the best answer? I struggled between A and D, and picked A finally, which is "ascertain educational level and provide publications".





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Multiple infections. Abscesses. Then you hear decreased oxidative burst and immediately think NADPH oxidase deficiency aka Chronic granulomatous disease, which causes recurrent abscess-forming infections due to the inability to kill ingested organisms because of the inability to generate superoxide radicals.

jean_young2019  Then why the choice D, “Inability of leukocytes to ingest microorganisms“, is incorrect?Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus is not an intracellular microorganism. Thank you for your help! +  
houseppary  Because in CGD, the macrophages are capable of taking in bacteria but aren't able to do the oxidative burst required to actually kill them. So the macrophages just house live bacteria which leads to granulomas full of walled-off but not dead bacteria. And S. aureus isn't intracellular as part of its normal life cycle, but being eaten by a macrophage isn't part of its normal life cycle. Whether an organism gets eaten by a macrophage isn't part of the consideration of whether it's intracellular. +  


submitted by flashvoyger(12),

The question is asking you how much water must the woman take in to maintain the same osmolality. This woman takes in 450 mOsm of solute per day. This is a unit of measurement -- think of it like grams.

For her to keep the same osmolality she must excrete 450 mOsm per day. The only way for her to excrete the solute is via the kidneys. The only way for her kidneys to excrete 450 mOsm is if they excrete 1 liter of water also. This is the max concentration that her kidneys can produce. (Her kidneys are not “powerful enough” to make her urine any more concentrated than that.)

This woman is also losing another liter of water to feces, sweating and respiration. This is the “insensible water loss”. That means if she losing 1 liter of water to sweat, respiration and feces per day plus 1 liter of water to urine (because she needs to dissolve her solute in something!), for her blood to stay the same osmolality, she must replace the water she lost thus must, at minimum, drink 2 liters of water per day.

jean_young2019  great explanation!Thank you! +  


submitted by mattnatomy(22),

I believe they're referring to compression of branches of the Ilioinguinal Nerve (possibly the Anterior Scrotal Nerves.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_scrotal_nerves

armymed88  Ilioingual covers part of the medial thigh, base of penis and anterior scrotum Posterior scrotal nerves are a branch of pudendal and cover said area Doral nerves cover the dorsum of the penis which are also from the pudendal +1  
meningitis  I thought it was the Genitofemoral nerve because the genital branch supplies the cremaster and scrotal skin, but I looked it up and: The genital branch passes through the *deep inguinal ring* and enters the inguinal canal; also, Ilioinguinal wraps around the spermatic cord just like the question stem says. +1  
jean_young2019  "The structures which pass through the canals differ between males and females: in males: the spermatic cord[6] and its coverings + the ilioinguinal nerve." from wiki "Inguinal canal", which means the ilioinguinal nerve lies on the external surface of spermatic cord. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inguinal_canal The contents of spermatic cord includes, "nerve to cremaster (genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve) and testicular nerves (sympathetic nerves). It is worth noting that the ilio-inguinal nerve is not actually located inside the spermatic cord, but runs along the outside of it, in the inguinal canal." from wiki spermatic cord. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spermatic_cord +  


How is this the answer if there is no family history of recurrent fractures? I thought osteogenesis imperfecta was autosomal dominant?

seagull  Exactly!! it's an autosomal dominate disease! +  
emcee  Autosomal dominant diseases are variably expressive. Still, I think this was a badly written question (should have given us some family history). +  
wutuwantbruv  Also, FA says that fractures may occur during the birthing process, which is what I believe they were going for. I don't believe these findings would be seen at birth with any of the other choices. +  
d_holles  Yeah I thought I outsmarted NBME by selecting Rickets bc it said no family history ... guess I got played lol. +3  
jean_young2019  Could it be a sporadic cases? Spontaneous Mutation This is a change in a gene that occurs without an obvious cause, in a family where there is no history of the particular gene mutation. OI is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Approximately 35% of cases have no family history and are called "sporadic" cases. In sporadic cases, OI is believed to result from a spontaneous new mutation. http://www.oif.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Glossary +  


submitted by wired-in(31),

Maintenance dose formula is (CssCltau)/F where Css is steady-state target plasma conc. of drug, Cl is clearance, tau is dosage interval & F is bioavailability.

Neither dosage interval nor bioavailability is given, so ignoring those & plugging in the numbers (careful to convert units to mg/kg/day): (12 ug/mL * 1 mg/1000 ug) * (0.09 L/hr/kg * 1000 mL/1 L * 24 hr/1 day) = 25.92 mg/kg/day

...which isn't any of the answer choices listed. They must have rounded 0.09 L/hr/kg to 0.1 L/hr/kg, and doing so gives exactly 28.8 mg/kg/day (choice C)

lispectedwumbologist  That's so infuriating I stared at this question for 20 minutes thinking I did something wrong +21  
hyoid  ^^^^^ +2  
seagull  lol..my math never worked either. I also just chose the closest number. also, screw this question author for doing that. +2  
praderwilli  Big mad +4  
ht3  this is why you never waste 7 minutes on a question.... because of shit like this +5  
yotsubato  Why the FUCK did they not just give us a clearance of 0.1 if they're going to fuckin round it anyways... +6  
bigjimbo  JOKES +  
cr  in ur maths, why did u put 24h/1day and not 1day/24h? if the given Cl was 0.09L/hr/kg. I know it just is a math question, but i´d appreciate if someone could explain it. +  
d_holles  LMAO games NBME plays +  
hyperfukus  magic math!!!!! how TF r we supposed to know when they round and when they don't like wtf im so pissed someone please tell me step isn't like this...with such precise decimal answers and a calculator fxn you would assume they wanted an actual answer! +  
jean_young2019  OMG, I've got the 25.92 mg/kg/day, which isn't any of the answer choices listed. So I chose the D 51.8, because 51.8 is double of 25.9......I thought I must have make a mistake during the calculation ...... +  
atbangura  They purposely did that so if you made a mistake with your conversion like I did, you might end up with 2.5 which was one of the answer choices. SMH +  
titanesxvi  I did well, but I thought that my mistake was something to do with the conversion and end up choosing 2.5 because it is similar to 25.92 +