nbmeanswers.com will be going offline for ~hour for some updates! we’ll be right back! --the webmaster (2:17am) ❤️
Welcome to medschoollovin's page.
Contributor score: 5

Comments ...

 +1  (nbme20#9)

Osteoblastic lesions are associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma mets.

Most other cancer mets to the bone are osteolytic lesions.

 +0  (nbme21#26)

"Upon application of pressure to the internal end of the cervix, oxytocin is released (therefore increase in contractile proteins), which stimulates uterine contractions, which in turn increases pressure on the cervix (thereby increasing oxytocin release, etc.), until the baby is delivered.

Sensory information regarding mechanical stretch of the cervix is carried in a sensory neuron, which synapses in the dorsal horn before ascending to the brain in the anterolateral columns (ipsilateral and contralateral routes). Via the median forebrain bundle, the efferent reaches the PVN and SON of the hypothalamus. The posterior pituitary releases oxytocin due to increased firing in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract. Oxytocin acts on the myometrium, on receptors which have been upregulated by a functional increase of the estrogen-progesterone ratio. This functional ratio change is mediated by a decrease in myometrial sensitivity to progesterone, due to an increase in progesterone receptor A, and a concurrent increase in myometrial sensitivity to estrogen, due to an increase in estrogen receptor α. This causes myometrial contraction and further positive feedback on the reflex.[1]"


seagull  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8665768 a counter argument for PGE if you chose that answer. However, the author believes oxytocin is superior.
usmleuser007  1) PGE rises initially that causes the uterine contractions= this would be equivalent to when someone say #of contractions per time period. 2) Oxytocin is increased when the cervix is manipulated (ie. the birth canal reflex).

 +2  (nbme21#1)

Schizoid (clusterA)= voluntary self withdrawal and is content with social isolation. (vs Avoidant, they wan to have relationships).

 +2  (nbme21#14)

Autoimmune thyroiditis (aka Hashimoto) + pregnant--> Think about possibility of fetal hypothyroidism due to antibody mediated maternal hypothyroidism. Leads to Cretinism. Findings in infant are the 6'P (Pot belly, Pale, Puffy face, Protruding umbilicus, Protuberant tongue, and Poor Brain development.

neonem  I don't understand the last part of this question stem though... if the mother's TSH *increases* during pregnancy? Wouldn't this further increase her (and/or the fetus's) production of T4 and thus counteract the hypothyroidism?
poojaym  @neonem no. Autoimmune hypothyroidism is a destruction of the thyroid gland, and a decrease in production of T3/T4. An increase in TSH means that there is not enough T3/T4 to inhibit TRH, and so TSH is being released to stimulate the thyroid gland.
arezpr  TSH, T3, T4 and thyroglobulin cannot cross the placental barrier.
chamaleo  @arezpr although those hormones can't cross, the autoantibodies from Hashimoto's can
yotsubato  The baby has its own TSH though
sbryant6  TSH comes from the pituitary, and act on the thyroid. Autoantibodies attack the thyroid, so TSH doesn't work.
kimcharito  no goiter then?

Subcomments ...