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Going off of the comments people have posted above & kinda bringing things together:
PDA flows from aorta to pulmonary arteries, which reverses after birth. This means de-oxygenated blood flow from the pulmonary arteries to the aorta & less volume being sent to the LF side of the heart.
This results in a decreased afterload because there is less blood flowing from the lungs to re-fill the LF ventricle, & the heart is still pumping with the same force as before, so the same volume of blood is leaving, but less in entering the LF side of the heart.
From here, you use CO = SV x HR
SV = preload - afterload (which is decreased due to the PDA)
This results in SV being larger than normal, so when you plug that into CO = SV x HR you get a higher number for cardiac output.
The ductus arteriosus flows from PA --> aorta in utero to bypass the lungs, which have extremely high resistance to flow. This reverses after birth due to a drop in PGE2 (which was supplied by the placenta) and increase in left-sided systemic resistance. So a PDA typically flows aorta --> PA (assuming there are no other defects).
Just adding support to the above explanation:
do all azoles or just itraconazole only requires an acidic environment to be absorbed?
just itraconazole and posaconazole
@chandlerbas, where did you find this information? I was looking over this on FA but they do not mention it and I would like a bit more information. Thanks!
haha no stress! the article above submitted by @necrotizingfasciitis does a descent job explaining it, however its not good enough, I looked into a bit more on uptodate but wasn't fruitful in my endeavours. goodluck!
How are we supposed to know this!! It is not in UWORLD or FA right?
Someone said it on here, since there was no CYP inducer of the answer choices, the only way to even think about an answer to this question was to just go with a less acidic environment from the PPI affecting absorption. It was simply the only reasonable answer choice, I don't think there's any way we were expected to know of this exact interaction prior
Golan pharm book states the exact same thing. Cannot be given to patients with acholrhydria.