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You just have to know that POMC is a pro-protein that must be cleaved; not sure if there’s anything in the stem that would really have given it away.
Dunno if this helps, but it says "this protein" (singular) is the precursor of two different protein products. This must mean that the modification occurs after the protein is made, which means after transcription and splicing has already happened.
Also I believe mRNA refers to after the splicing already occurs. If the protein products are from the same mRNA then it can't be alternate splicing.
They're cleaved by tissue-specific proteases
Alternative splicing occurs with hnRNA not mRNA. You get mRNA from alternatively splicing the hnRNA. an mRNA can only make 1 type of protein.
Since the question says the 2 proteins comes from the same mRNA it cannot be alternative splice or post transcriptional mod. FA 2018 page 43 has a good illustration.
I think another factor is that in case series studies there is no control group vs case-control, cohort...ect