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Welcome to overa’s page.
Contributor score: 16

Comments ...

 +1  (nbme18#10)

I think that this is a ureteric stricture or ureteropelvic junction obstruction (not sure if they are the same thing) but according to sketchy, it is the most common cause of unilateral fetal/congenital hydronephrosis and most commonly happens in those who Saturdays are for.. ;)

dhpainte22  If only kidney was involved I would agree with you but the ureter also being involved equally as much as the kidney leads me towards cystic kidney. +
utap2001  Hydronephrosis is associated with cortical atrophy and tubular atrophy. But atrophy is different from necrosis, atrophy is chronic fibrosis change, necrosis result from acute ischemia or inflammation. +

 +5  (nbme24#50)

Case-series: comparing patients with a KNOWN OUTCOME (disease) to others with the same disease and looking back to see if they were exposed... "Did 2 people with the same disease get it from the same place?"

Case-control: comparing patients with a KNOWN OUTCOME (disease) to others WITHOUT (control) the disease and looking back to see if they were exposed. (odds ratio)... "they are sick and you want to see if drinking the contaminated water caused it by comparing them to normal people."

Cohort: Comparing patients with a KNOWN EXPOSURE and moving forward with them (prospective) or looking back in time (retrospective) to see if they developed the outcome (disease). (relative risk)... "they all drank the contaminated water and you want to see if they are more likely to get the disease."

Correlation is a statistical analysis used when both the dependent and independent variables have quantitative measurement values.

I hope this is right and helps... :)

makingstrides  Case series don't have a comparison group . UWorld's answer +

 -3  (nbme24#33)

Pulsatile pituitary pulses peripherally provide production perpetually... pulsatile

 +2  (nbme24#29)

Presenilin... think "PREmature SENILE" for early-onset Alzheimer’s

an_improved_me  Gold!! +

 +2  (nbme23#50)

Compression of the umbilical cord is what doctors do when the baby is delivered, this causes an increase in SVR! The increase will be felt by the baby and cause a compensatory decrease in HR. This is also the reason why carotid massage tricks the body into decreasing HR (it thinks the pressure is high... like the pressure is high on you... to do well on this test...or fail.. and drop out... and raise sheep on a farm...where you can sell sheep wool... and catch anthrax... and have to get medical attention.. so you end up in the hospital as the Illuminati intended).

sarahs  lolll +

Subcomments ...

submitted by chai_md(8),
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raseNsiei ieeimgnnisdt acn dale to ererhirWd-esheouianFstc ysndroem dl(anrae cficfni,yesiun vre,ef CD,I ok)chs

overa  if there is ever a case where the organ is underperforming, you do a stimulation test. if the organ is overperforming, you do a suppression test. ACTH is really the only one that made sense with WFS (adrenal insufficiency caused by N. meningitides) in this question. +4  

submitted by pelparente(21),

I believe this is rotavirus which is a common cause of fatal diarrhea in children. I think "wheel-like shape" is technically a buzz word for rotavirus, but I didn't know that. Yes, there is a vaccine, but it requires 2-3 shots giving within a month starting after 6 weeks of age so maybe this child isn't completely immune yet. Once you get to rotavirus you just need to know the rest and I linked the video below on how I remember all the viruses.

cheesetouch  Rotavirus is the only dsRNA virus and is important/unique from that. +2  
overa  the vaccine is orally administrated +  

submitted by azibird(182),

FA2020 p491 Neural tube defects Neuropores fail to fuse (4th week)

The 4th week falls in the range of 3 to 8, but such a wide range threw me off and I picked 0 to 2 anyway.

overa  the first 2 weeks are "all or none". so usually if the fetus is exposed to teratogens here, it will either terminate the pregnancy or the baby will be unaffected. +3  

submitted by masn8cc(2),

Can someone explain how they r/o aortic stenosis? because that could enlarge the LA and give the same sx of hoarseness etc. And the murmur also fits with AS

bmalamet  You would not see a "viable pulsation above the manubrium, which you should not confuse with a "brisk carotid upstroke" associated with aortic stenosis. +2  
nbmeanswersownersucks  "brisk carotid upstroke" is the description of a normal carotid pulse. Aortic stenosis has a slowly rising/late peaking upstroke since the stenosis impedes flow out of the LV. +4  
overa  AS affects the LV first. it isn't until later in the disease progression that there will be a significant enough enlargement of the LA to cause impingement of the LA. By the time the problem was that bad there would also be pulmonary findings of backed-up pressure (in my not so expert opinion). +  
305charlie94  Can anyone explain why the trachea is deviated in an aortic aneurysm? Made me think of a pneumothorax here +1  
baja_blast  ^It's basically mass effect. Aortic aneurism takes up space in the thorax, displacing the trachea to the right. Take a look at this CXR: +3  

submitted by krewfoo99(93),
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madojo  building off on this... answer choice A would be something like Maraviroc, and B is basically the same thing as A because a fusion inhibitor would be something like Maraviroc where you don't have any interaction with CCR5 and gp120. +1  
overa  ^ With B, they are referring to Enfuvirtide, which blocks FUSION via gp41 blockade. Maraviroc blocks ATTACHMENT by preventing gp120 binding the chemokine receptor CCR5 on macrophages mainly. -lolnotacop +2  

submitted by madojo(177),
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overa  GBM comes is an adult astrocyte tumor +  
overa  ^ this guy doesn't know how to speak English +  

submitted by madojo(177),
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overa  GBM comes is an adult astrocyte tumor +  
overa  ^ this guy doesn't know how to speak English +