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From a random paper I found, “Arguably p53’s most important function is to act as a transcription factor that directly regulates perhaps several hundred of the cell’s RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-transcribed genes.” So normally it increases RNA pol binding; a mutation would decrease it.
The TATA box is part of the promoter region site where RNA polymerase II and other transcription factors bind to DNA. A defect would therefore decrease binding of RNA polymerase.
Also you can reason it out (I got this wrong because you have to be really meticulous) since we know that loss of p53 = cancer. Cancer = want more cell division = don’t want inhibitory gene = less transcription of said gene.
because raising the arm above the shoulder suggests abduction which would mean the axillary nerve is also involved. the lesion would be more proximal.
I thought "up to the shoulder" is done by deltoid muscle (aka axillary nerve) and above is done by trapezius.
as far as i can find, abduction ranges of motion, per first aid are:
0-15° = supraspinatus
15-90° = Deltoid
90° = trapezius
100° (over the head) = serratus anterior
in this question, they are directly telling you its not the serratus (long thoracic), because no option compromises it. Also, trapezius is innervated by cranial nerve XI, which is not a part of the brachial plexus, so, even though its worded weirdly, you can assume they are talking about deltoid disfunction.
so deltoid disfunction (axillary) + radial disfunction = posterior cord
I think it’s because meningiomas are able to calcify (aka sometimes they have psamomma bodies). I got this question wrong too but I totally did not completely register that the tumor was in the dura (interhemispheric fissure + central sulcus). Hope that helps!
the only reason I got this right was because they described the tumour as being near the falx cerebri.
Other hints include being described as round and seen in a female. Both indicative of Meningioma
also meningiomas typically present with seizures or focal neurological signs