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Glygocen stores are depleted within 24h. This person has signs and symptoms of longterm nutritional deficiences.
it would not explain the edema, yes
Also the warburg phenomenon has to do with cancers preferentially taking up glucose; there is no indication that he has cancer.
The first sentence says that he has lung cancer.
Femoral hernia's are more common in women, i don't think this was a femoral hernia, either way any type of hernia can under strangulation.
Nephrotoxicity results from lead exposure because the kidney is the main route by which lead is eliminated. Lead is absorbed by the proximal tubular cells of the renal tubules, where it binds to specific lead-binding proteins.
Atypical lymphocytes are CD8+ T cells, not CD4+. Remember that.
I remember this because Infectious Mononucleosis is caused by a virus (mostly EBV, sometimes CMV) and MHC Class I functions to present endogenous antigens (e.g. viral or cytosolic proteins) to CD8+ T cells. In comparison, MHC Class II is more involved with presenting exogenous antigens (e.g. bacterial proteins) to CD4+ T cells. // FA 2019, pg 100
According to Sketchy and Amboss: dextromethorphan is a weak opioid receptor AGONIST and NMDA receptor ANTAGONIST (it's not an agonist).
Li-Fraunemi syndrome = SBLA (sarcoma, breast, leukemia, adrenal gland syndrome) and occurs because of an autosomal dominant inherited mutation of p53
APC: linked to FAP (colorectal cancer)
RET: linked to papillary thyroid cancer, MEN 2A, MEN 2B
The thing that threw me off was that the only connection in her FH to the above SBLA reference was the mention of a paternal cousin with adrenocortical carcinoma. The other two mentioned had brain cancers, which seem completely outside the scope of the above mnemonic. Then again, as mentioned elsewhere, I suppose the best policy on these is just to rule out the absolute wrong answers.
I swear, the NBME is lying when they tell us to choose the "best" answer on some of these. What they actually mean in practice is for us to choose the least shitty.
^ this guy cracked the code. nbme ur doomed.
@privatejoker: I feel the pain. Quick FYI: UW includes brain in the associated tumors.
we can just make her thing SBBLA and hopefully never get this wrong again
@privatejoker: according to UW, Li Fraumeni includes SABBB(sarcoma/adrenocortical/breast/brain/blood(leukemia))
side note: RB1 = retinoblastoma with an increased risk of osteosarcoma
TP53 associated with SBLA + Brain tumor + Anaplastic Thyroid ca + Transitional cell ca.
Thanks! Good mnemonic
A helpful equation is CO=rate of O2 consumption/(arterial O2 content-venous O2 content): Fick principle
If CO is decreased, then the difference between arterial O2 content and venous O2 content is increased
To clarify a little bit, the tissues wouldn't necessarily extract MORE oxygen from the passing RBCs than they normally would. They would extract the same amount as they normally would to carry out their own functions. However, because the starting amount of O2 delivered to tissues is lower, you'd end up with less O2 bound to hemoglobin returning to the right heart.
Hyotension will lead to decreased arterial pressure and DECREASED stretch. This leads to decreased afferent barcreceptor firing (carotid sinus and aortic arch). This leads to an increase in efferent sympathetic firing and decreased efferent PNS stimulation. This leads to vasoconstriction, increased HR and increased BP.
The way I remember this, carotid massage slows the heart. So baroreceptor stimulation (more impulses) increases parasympathetic output.
FA 2018 pg 291 has helpful image/description