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i swear i've done the same question before on uworld/ one of the previous NBMEs and the answer to that was intracellular Ca accumulation.
@bharatpillai that's also true! Dec ATP >> dec activity of Ca2+ and Na+/K+ pumps >> cellular swelling (earliest morphologic manifestation of reversible cell injury), mitochondrial swelling --- FA, pg 207
Na+/K+ ATPase inhibited >> inc intracellular Na+ >> dec activity of Ca2+/3Na+ exchange pump >> inc intracellular Ca2+ --- this is the same way digoxin works in the heart!
I think it's the nucleus affected in lateral medullary syndrome (instead of the nerve axons)
Because in the medulla section the nucleus is dorsal motor nucleus of X
Synaptobrevin is a SNARE protein. Why they couldn’t just give us SNARE I’ll never know.
Cause they're dicks, and they watched sketchy to make sure our buzzwords were removed from the exam
Oh and they read FA and did UW to make sure its not in there either
This toxin binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction and is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. Enzymatically, tetanus toxin is a zinc metalloprotease that cleaves the protein synaptobrevin, an integral neurovesicle protein involved in membrane fusion. Without membrane fusion, the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and GABA is blocked. -rx questions!
So out of curiosity I checked out B) N-Acetylneuraminic acid
It's sialic acid
shocked they haven't started calling a "farmworker" a "drudge" <-- word I pulled from thesaurus.
"You shouldn't memorize buzzwords. You gotta learn how to think."
Lemme pick another random ass word that doesn't have anything to do with critical thinking skills and use it instead.
Just as an FYI, there are multiple "SNARE" Proteins. Syntaxin, SNAP 25, Synaptobrevin (VAMP). From google it looks like Tetanospasmin cleaves Synaptobrevin (VAMP). Botulism toxin has multiple serotypes that target any of the SNARE proteins.
Here's one fact I won't forget: Step 1 testwriters are incels
thanks for this explanation!
can any one explain to me why not lens ?
@macrophage95 Lens are an interal part of the refractive power of the eye. Without the lens the image would not be formed on the retina, thus leading to visual loss
Do anyone know why not choroid?
@qfever, no choroid would also be more detrimental to vision since it supplies blood to the retina
That random zanki card with colobomas associated with a failure of the choroid fissure to close messed me up
Seems like the key to this question is in what is omitted from the question stem: there is no mention of vision loss. If we assume there is no vision loss, then we can eliminate things associated with visual acuity (weird to think of in 2 week old but whatever): C, D, E, F. Also, by @hayayah 's reasoning, we eliminate E & F. If you reconsider the "asymmetric left pupil" then the only likely answer between A & B is B, Iris because the iris' central opening forms the pupil. I mistakenly put A because I was thinking of the choroid fissure and I read the question incorrectly - but it's a poorly worded question IMO.
Key here is that it doesn't affect vision- the only thing would be the iris. All others are used in vision. Don't have to know what a coloboma actually is.
The extra section of that Zanki card specifically says that a coloboma "can be seen in the iris, retina, choroid, or optic disc." Don't you dare talk trash about Zanki!
But isn't statin associated with hepatotoxicity too? FA 2019 page 320
@qfever. I think thats why OP said that statins are not metabolized in the liver.
Author rationale: "What is grammar?"
Did anyone read like 50 times and still get it wrong? (LOL, me)
Actually never understand what the author saying at any time. LOL
Such a shitty question. Do we really have such questions on the real exam? In my opinion they just throw junk question to those assesments
Oh my goodness- thank you! I was so mad at whoever wrote this shitty question! (Got it wrong lol)
how are we supposed to know that dipalmitoyl lecithin is the same thing as dipalmitorylphosphatidylcholine
FA 2019 page 647
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mix of lecithins, the most important of which is dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC).
Also: Screening tests for fetal lung maturity: lecithin- sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio in amniotic fluid
(≥ 2 is healthy; < 1.5 predictive of NRDS)