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 +0  (nbme21#35)

The key to this question is that the patient is 4 months old and getting water.

Newborns should NOT be getting plain water until after 6 months of age because it can cause hyponatremia --> seizures


 +2  (nbme21#20)

Addition to Hungrybox's explanation:

Why it's not 47,XXY:

This would be referring to Klinefelter's, which is characterized by small, poorly functioning testicles.

However, question states "morphologic studies of a biopsy specimen of the testes show no abnormalities"

readit  More specifically, in Klinefelter's, you would see "hyaline seminiferous tubules/sertoli cells" on histology

 +0  (nbme21#25)

Why is is not pseudo aneurysm?

"Aortic pseudoaneurysms typically occur as a result of trauma +/- intervention, a considered subset of traumatic aortic injury in the majority of cases. They can be acute or chronic."

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/aortic-pseudoaneurysm?lang=us

readit  *same goes for saccular aneurysm, which also is usually 2/2 trauma
samsam3711  In the question stem there is no indication of trauma so it would be hard to just assume that
almondbreeze  see my comment above for marfan syndrome. might help

 +0  (nbme21#36)

An anti-idiotypic antibody is an antibody which binds an antibody.

As an example, an anti-idiotypic antibody be helpful for treating a naiive B cell prior to activation, which express IgM and IgD on their surfaces. This is because the anti-idiopathic antibody can bind to the IgM/IgD antibody on the surface of a naiive B cell.

Multiple Myeloma cells, however, are made up of Plasma cells, which no longer express Ig's on their surface like naiive B cells do. Thus, there is no surface antibody [aka "membrane bound surface immunoglobulin"] for an anti-idiotypic antibody to bind to.

readit  Source: First aid Pg 105, 2019 edition

 +0  (nbme21#16)

Why it is not MVP:

Full quotation from UpToDate: "Symptoms [... such as] various nonspecific symptoms such as palpitations, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and dizziness have been attributed to MVP. However, symptoms are not reliable indicators of MVP. Furthermore, symptoms frequently seen in individuals with MVP have not been conclusively determined to be more prevalent than in the general population. As an example, in a study of 147 patients referred for echocardiography for suspected MVP, the presence of symptoms was not associated with MVP on echocardiography (found in 22 percent) [43]. (See "Mitral valve prolapse syndrome".)"





Subcomments ...

submitted by hayayah(508),

Stretch or dilation of the cervix and vagina are strong stimuli for oxytocin secretion, mediated by neural pathways called the Ferguson reflex.

Article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/ferguson-reflex

readit  This is also why ob-gyn's will massage the uterus (which is part of the birth canal) after delivery. It's to get the body to release oxytocin and cause the uterus to contract (to prevent postpartum hemorrhage) +  


submitted by readit(2),

Addition to Hungrybox's explanation:

Why it's not 47,XXY:

This would be referring to Klinefelter's, which is characterized by small, poorly functioning testicles.

However, question states "morphologic studies of a biopsy specimen of the testes show no abnormalities"

readit  More specifically, in Klinefelter's, you would see "hyaline seminiferous tubules/sertoli cells" on histology +  


submitted by readit(2),

Why is is not pseudo aneurysm?

"Aortic pseudoaneurysms typically occur as a result of trauma +/- intervention, a considered subset of traumatic aortic injury in the majority of cases. They can be acute or chronic."

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/aortic-pseudoaneurysm?lang=us

readit  *same goes for saccular aneurysm, which also is usually 2/2 trauma +  
samsam3711  In the question stem there is no indication of trauma so it would be hard to just assume that +  
almondbreeze  see my comment above for marfan syndrome. might help +  


submitted by readit(2),

An anti-idiotypic antibody is an antibody which binds an antibody.

As an example, an anti-idiotypic antibody be helpful for treating a naiive B cell prior to activation, which express IgM and IgD on their surfaces. This is because the anti-idiopathic antibody can bind to the IgM/IgD antibody on the surface of a naiive B cell.

Multiple Myeloma cells, however, are made up of Plasma cells, which no longer express Ig's on their surface like naiive B cells do. Thus, there is no surface antibody [aka "membrane bound surface immunoglobulin"] for an anti-idiotypic antibody to bind to.

readit  Source: First aid Pg 105, 2019 edition +