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Welcome to redvelvet’s page.
Contributor score: 43


Comments ...

 +1  (nbme22#30)
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fI yuo atwn ot ekta a kloo for eth liicalnc nrpmacteoi of hte oemhinaexs ahwtpya m&;pa sdpuc:rto m.ene/x/swc/nrciihttwwmsndu/iec/rtaieecspcihsoeoc:ceosopnt.se


 +0  (nbme20#46)
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nshroieopcct enlag rendesntse adn BWe Cfver acsts ni lsbuute no tath pooth for xepamlell A of ehtm si eilgand su ot tpselrnpye.ohii dnA eenv rionm iytsctis can ucesa lohetiryppsnie in pcragneyn ude to itvucrboets pr.htayou

diegolc26  I thought it could be D or E at first. But the picture is really clear. There is inflammation within the tubules, not in the interstitium, that points more for Obstructive Uropathy which is also painful, can cause fever, and a risk factor could be compression due to elarged uterus. +




Subcomments ...

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ltdavnie scitano erneifter htiw het bnsartopoi onr)btsdi?a(o of ixacnrfopil.oC

redvelvet  divalent cations interfere with the absorption of tetracyclines, not fluoroquinolones. anti-acids interfere with the absorption of fluoroquinolones. (like in this q, it's ca carbonate) +2  
keyseph  According to SketchyPharm, divalent cations also interfere with the absorption of fluoroquinolones +11  
nbmeanswersownersucks  Calcium carbonate is an antacid but it has Calcium in it....which is a divalent cation +2  


submitted by medstruggle(12),
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hWy si it ont avoirna flillcoe ?sllce I ohgthut eth afmele agnloa fo otilreS dan gedLiy is slou/grhaancaet lelsc.

colonelred_  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +10  
brethren_md  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +4  
sympathetikey  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +5  
s1q3t3  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +11  
masonkingcobra  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +3  
mcl  Wait, but did anyone mention that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen??? +38  
mcl  But seriously though, pathology outlines says sertoli-leydig tumor "may be suspected clinically in a young patient presenting with a combination of virilization, elevated testosterone levels and ovarian / pelvic mass on imaging studies." As for follicle cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors usually occur in adults and would cause elevated levels of estrogens. Theca cell tumor would also primarily produce estrogens. Putting the links at the end since idk if they're gonna turn out right lol Link pathology outlines for sertoli leydig granulosa cell tumor theca cell tumor +12  
bigjimbo  LOL +  
fallenistand  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +5  
medpsychosis  So after doing some intense research, UPtoDate, PubMed, an intense literature review on the topic I have come to the final conclusion that...... ...... ...... ...... Wait for it.... ..... ..... Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +9  
charcot_bouchard  Hello, i just want to add that Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
giggidy  Hold up, so I'm confused - I read all the posts above but I still am unsure - are sertoli-leydig cells notorious for producing androgen? +4  
subclaviansteele  Hold the phone.....Females can get sertoli leydig cell tumors which are notorious for producing androgen? TIL TL;DR - Females can get sertoli leydig cell tumors = high androgens +  
cinnapie  I just found a recent study on PubMed saying "Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen" +2  
youssefa  Hahahahaha ya'll just bored +9  
water  Bored? you wouldn't think so if you knew that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +5  
nbmehelp  I dont get it +  
redvelvet  how don't you get it that females can get Sertoli Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen? +1  
drmomo  what if this means..... females can get Sertoli Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +  
sunshinesweetheart  hahahaha this made my day #futurephysicians #lowkeyidiots +  
sunshinesweetheart  @medstruggle look up placental aromatase deficiency (p. 625 FA 2019), it would have a different presentation +  
deathbystep1  i am sure i would ace STEP 1 if i only knew that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +2  
noplanb  Wait... I might actually never forget this now lol +3  
drmohandes  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +1  
lilmonkey  Don't forget that females can get Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens! You're welcome! +  
drpatinoire  Now I get it that females can get Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens. Thank you very much.. So why choose Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor again? +  
dr_ligma  The reason is because females can get Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens! This is easy to remember, as you can remember it through the simple mnemonic "FCGSLCTWANFPLOA" which stands for "Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen!" +18  
minion7  after receiving a f*king score..... this post made me smile and thanks to the statement-- females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumours, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen! +1  
djtallahassee  My worthless self put adrenal zona fasciculate but now I will never forget that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
medguru2295  Wait..... so can females get Sertoli Leydig cells that produce androgens then?????? +  
peqmd  Going to snapshot this to my anki deck card: "females can get Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of {{c1::androgens}}" +1  
paperbackwriter  Watch me f*ck up the fact that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens on the real deal. +2  
alexxxx30  just made sure to add to my notes "Females can get sertoli leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens" +2  
peridot  I also just wanna add that if you look on in FA on p.696969, you'll see that they'll mention "Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen" +  
mbate4  According to the literature [lol] females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of antigens +  
drdoom  the tradition lives on +1  
jamaicabliz  Wait... so for clarification, is it that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen? Or that Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen?? HELP +  
abkapoor  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen sorry for bad Englesh +  
faus305  Sertoli-leydig cells are notorious for producing lots of androgens, females can get these. +  
djeffs1  the fact that a bunch of medstudents can get so weird about how females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors: notorious for producing lots of androgens- just made my week!! I love you guys +  


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iDd onyane seel go wodn h:et 'sesh neptyvohsei so eyabm s'ellh tge auosehertw dfrcieisnehr neydosmr seeuabc gotihnn else is ikgmna ssnee to em at hsti topn?i?? retou -

suTnr ot,u resvee airlmaa nca auces odvasrlaicracu loapcesl and einohyo.tpsn

redvelvet  me too :( +1  
abigail  me three :( +1  
yex  Me four :-/ +1  
link981  Slowly raising my hand as well +1  
tinydoc  Sammmme +1  
bullshitusmle  same here!!!:@ +1  
usmlecharserssss  patient has malaria with obvious picture and clinic, i answered because only thing associated with liver was hypoglycemia +12  
aisel1787  me five( +  
myoclonictonicbionic  I was thinking that she is hypotensive which can cause an infarct of the pituitary (since pituitary is growing during pregnancy) and therefore she'd have secondary adrenal insufficiency. +1  
alexxxx30  sammmeeeee +  
snripper  Dumbasses unite lmao +  
usmleaspirant2020  lol saaaaame! +  
usmleaspirant2020  lol saaaaame! +  
anechakfspb  me also :/ sitting there trying to figure it out during the test I thought I was so smart too - like "wow nbme, way to tie in micro and endocrine, not getting me though!" ... i was wrong. +1  


submitted by mousie(220),
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A ahnaogemim is a ytpe of nebign nnnc(uroac-oe)s turom ni nfsna.it iThs arnblmoa lcetsur of salml odblo sevssel eaarspp no or drneu het ksni, lytlicpay niwhit oen to heert keews rfate .hrtbi - l.g.sonscwhpealwdwrirtiohaoemmgnai H is a pVir/cByalla rbamhrtik

sympathetikey  Probably a Strawberry Hemangioma since she's a baby +9  
meningitis  Can anyone explain what is option A? +1  
redvelvet  bc, it's a benign "capillary" hemangioma, we can see "thin-walled blood vessels with narrow lumens filled with blood and separated by connective tissue". It sounds similar to "arterioles in a fibrous stroma" but it's capillary. +1  
peridot  @meningitis I believe option A ("arterioles in a fibrous stroma") is describing an angiofibroma. The name angiofibroma already tells you that there is some component of fibrotic tissue involved, whereas in this case of strawberry hemangioma, the name tells you that it's more like pure blood vessels (capillaries in this case). +2  


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Nciina can useca ,aycelrphyiegm iu,ghfsnl and tgou. 'ANISDs acn eratt uog.t Aisinpr ta ihgh iocentrcnnasto laos hisitbin rlane ntrorisa,bope utb it hiitisbn ertocnies ta wol .vellse I enwt hitw aniisrp rveo amaeoiepcnhnt /bc hloutgah atimoeepnhcna si an saglaicen ti sackl iyt-ranfmatanoilm atyci.vti

redvelvet  this is not that question :) +6  


submitted by aesalmon(84),
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FA gp. 607 - auielfr fo sounfi fo het yaalmirxl nda geredm emaidl saanl scprseeos roiaf(omnt fo mirrayp atp)ela

meningitis  I think Cleft palate could also be due to failure of fusion of lateral and medial nasal prominences.. but since the baby had lip involvement and the lateral nasals can be seen, I went with failure of Maxillary and medial nasal fusion. Someone correct me if im wrong. +4  
redvelvet  a helpful photo +3  
snripper  @meningitis this is cleft lip, not cleft palate +2  


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iHs tliad vuolme saw 050 .Lm nyEprxrodet-ai asw 5+ mc and sreadpr-ynitnoi saw 52.+ We erwe suppsdeo to eus the ifeefedcnr ni aawriy sr,eesrpu and ont teh id-aeystrnoiprn elplrau puesresr .)(20+

ceoalCmpni = ΔVP/Δ = 005 / 20 = 25 cLmm/ O2H

some-zheimers  Great explanation. In general, also a great idea to pay attention to the units. I studied Physics in undergrad and have got one or two questions based purely on following the units, when the formula slips. +23  
endochondral1  is that equation in FA? +  
redvelvet  yes @endochondral1, at page 651 in 2019FA +14  


submitted by usmleuser007(397),
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.enw:tb0.p/.v6gu//dpbwio5.318wlmhctm/sinnh

lfieRe fo blaetrincta ipan aws ddpeocru ni sxi mhanu nsteiapt yb tmaoltisinu of rldctseeeo ylepnnaertm imdntpeal ni hte rrnuitpvelaceir and ipuqrcetudeaal ayrg .tmtaer The leevl of ttiiusmnloa fisctfnuie to ucidne pnia rleife ssmee not to rlate eth atceu apni hlh.edtors ndIirimnsctiae etrviitpee iusmnailtto rdepucdo nlrcaeoet to boht iemdttc-olprsiounaud pina reflei dan hte gsanaclei ctonia fo atnciocr cdnmiaet;io thsi rosepsc cluod be eredvers by tbnansecie ofrm uimtsatilon. lciSpuanomti-douedtr leferi fo aipn was eerrsdve yb oaoxlenn in eifv otu of xis psnei.att sThee srtesul gstguse htat sytiftroacas evoilinltaa of erssptntie ianp in snmuah yam be ioteadbn by itlenorcec .tnisuatmoil

usmleuser007  These questions seem unfair to test because they are based on experimental data. Guess they are there to limit a perfect score. +2  
xxabi  I just read it as patients take opioids to blunt or control pain. So if the electrode does the same thing (decrease pain), then an antagonist of opioids (naloxone) would bring the pain back? Idk if that reasoning is sound but that's the logic I used, I didn't even think of it as experimental. +23  
xxabi  Also its the only one that's an opioid antagonist from the list! +2  
redvelvet  they are writing these questions in an evidence-based manner because the questions in medicine cannot be produced by a self imagination or logic. But that doesn't mean that we have to know their exact evidence like this question. we can use our own basic knowledge and adjust it with logic. so opioids have an analgesic effect in the body and naloxone can revert it. +4  
champagnesupernova3  Anything that reduces pain by brain stimulation is increasing endogenous opiods like endorphins and encephalitis. +2  
champagnesupernova3  Enkephalins* not encephalitis +  


submitted by laminin(15),
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nca omeseno xpleian hyw ti syas eh hsa na 'ntt'aic THP tnnn.ceosi.arcto.i it to lte su konw ahtt hte TPH ntecantrncooi is a selurt fo tpgnyo?ad laoh wst'ha his x?d k!ahtns

yotsubato  I swear they make up some of this stuff. Like whats up with the thirst, urination, and peptic ulcer diseases. +7  
redvelvet  hypercalcemia can cause nephrogenic diabetes inspidus; so thirst, urination. hypercalcemia can also cause peptic ulcer disease. His symptoms are all about hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism. +3  
namira  "Hypercalcemia can cause renal dysfunction such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the mechanisms underlying hypercalcemia-induced NDI are not well understood." https://www.kidney-international.org/article/S0085-2538(16)30704-9/fulltext +1  
dulxy071  Why can't the correct answer be C) which points towards renal failure, which may lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism having the same results I believe +1  
pmofmalasia  The secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal failure is due to loss of calcium in the non-functioning kidney. In this question the calcium was elevated, so you can rule out renal failure. +  
sars  Hyper-calcemia causes stones (calcium stones), groans (constipation), thrones (increased urination), bones (increased osteoclast activation), and psychiatric overtones (depression). +  


submitted by hayayah(1079),
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tateipaC dan aeulnt rae in eth ntcree fo eht p.mla tiCpeata is tno an noi,pot os lauetn is het r.sanew

isialoonDct of anetlu yam saecu ateuc learultnnap c nsoy.rdme

yotsubato  Lunate is the only carpal bone that is frequently dislocated. Scaphoid is frequently fractured. Hook of hamate is also frequently fractured. +3  
redvelvet  and also point tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox may indicate a scaphoid fracture. +3  
chandlerbas  yes lunate is the most common dislunated carpal bone ;) +4  
almondbreeze  FA 2019 pg. 439 : dislocation of lunate may cause acute carpal tunnel syndrome +  


submitted by hayayah(1079),
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iThs is na ealpmxe of he.nigsSl sepHer ielpsxm dna heserp srtoze vsuesir csaeu anoabrlm clel invsoidi ni arimpedel l,cels dna sthi aresetc udlinaecetlmtu tgina lce.ls

A nkaTz reams owgsihn tculemieadtnlu ntagi sellc is crctiiaerathcs fo allriVace tZsroe iVusr st.noenicfi HS(V wlil eahv miirsla i)fdn.nigs

ergogenic22  other identifying terms for herpes: Single dermatome (does not cross the midline), painful (burning and itching),and lesions in multiple stages. +3  
redvelvet  and why neutrophile infiltration, is it a thing? or just a distracting thing? +1  
charcot_bouchard  Neutrophil comes into party always first. but it was distracting for me too. +6  
dulxy071  Regardless if it can help resolve the issue, neutrophil will always be the first responder +2  


submitted by hayayah(1079),
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ciianllC eus fo rgniK-sap i:dsiecutr

  • ediaerprmoonylHsst
  • K+ epidltneo
  • FH
  • hacetpi assecit oepn()tranoiocsl
  • penornihcge ID r)iiameo(ld
  • dtngernaonia
redvelvet  Patients with hepatic ascites have hyperaldosteronism; because the intravascular volume is escaped to third space(ascites). So adding spironolactone is a good choice. +3  
champagnesupernova3  Always combine a K+ losing diuretic with a K+ sparing diuretic +11  
bryno20  My rational was a bit different. The patient likely has hepatorenal syndrome leading to a the ascites and decreased GFR. All diuretics, except for the steroids (eg, spironolactone), require secretion into the PCT in a GFR-dependent manner; for this reason, patient's with renal impairment show best success the steroid diuretics since their action is independent of renal function and GFR. +  
utap2001  RAAS system is increased in hepatic disease and HF, ACEI or ARB are good choices in diuresis therapy. +