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Comments ...

 +0  (nbme22#48)

This Question its about respiratory burst

Patients with NADPH deficiency=chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)

Even though patients with CGD can't make Superoxide, they can use it from the bacterias and convert it to bleach HCLO and kill the bacterias.

BUT bacterias with catalase enzymes neutralize their own superoxide and thats why the CGD patient can't kill them.

Catalase positive: S. aureus - Aspergillus


 +0  (nbme22#48)

This Question its about respiratory burst

Patients with NADPH deficiency=chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)

Even though patients with CGD can't make Superoxide, they can use it from the bacterias and convert it to bleach HCLO and kill the bacterias.

BUT bacterias with catalase enzymes neutralize their own superoxide and thats why the CGD patient can't kill them.

Catalase positive bacterias: S. aureus - Aspergillus


 +0  (nbme22#46)

My mind went this way: in Men Andropause = less testosterone = less bone density in Women more testosterone = more bone density = more alkaline phosphatase. Hemoglobin was my second option because I don't hear too much about anemia in post menopause or post andropause, but bonds density is a big deal there.

blah.


 +0  (nbme22#48)

My approach to this question was more just focusing in the info they are giving. None of the other option makes sense because there is not evidence to talk about them. I was very tempted to pick the "decrease leptin production" but I remembered Dr Goljan saying "Think simple, think cheap, they are not trying to trick you." So, chubby parents = chubby kids.


 +1  (nbme22#40)

Fact: 75% are due to a deletion in the long arm of the chromosome 15.

Input: This question tricked me up because when I saw a deletion in the chr15 as an option I though "I got it" but actually I did not because it is not in the short arm is in the long arm.





Subcomments ...

submitted by oznefu(7),

I get that the answer is correct for a reversible injury where there is cell swelling because of the increased intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ due to impaired Na/K and sarcoplasmic reticulum activity ...

But if there are increased cardiac enzymes in the blood indicating cell death and membrane damage, wouldn’t the intracellular electrolytes be low since they are released into the blood?

lord_voss  troponin = irreversible injury and membrane damage -> high extracellular concentration of Na+ and Ca++ causes both to move into cell through damaged membrane and high intracellular K+ leaves the cell +6  
rogeliogs  Question is asking about the changes in the myocardiocytes and my second interpretation was that they are asking the changes before they "rupture" and liberate their content in the blood producing increase enzymes in the patient. Therefore because is a ischemic process = reduction of O2 = low ATP = impairment of Na/K ATPase = increase Na-decrease K intracellular = block Ca/Na exchanger = increase Ca intracellular. the same effect as digoxin +