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 +0  (nbme24#38)

I have a question: Since CO = SV * HR, and in pregnancy, women have an increased basal HR, why can't the answer be Pulse?

home_run_ball  I don't think HR would explain the grade 2/6 murmur, but SV would

 +3  (nbme24#28)

Question pretty much is asking what type of virus is Measles, which is a Negative ssRNA virus.

dragon3  is the AIDS to indicate that he can't get live vaccinations?
tinydoc  Yep, also his unimmunized cousin points you to the fact that he got it from someone else who was unimmunized.

 +6  (nbme23#45)

Person has Lambert-Eaton syndrome (hx of lung cancer, and muscle activity that is better with use.

Presynaptic Ca2+ antibodies prevent the release of AcH presynaptically because the antibodies prevent the depolarization within the cell and prevents synaptic vessels of ACh from leaving.

thotcandy  ugh, I saw Ca2+ and stopped thinking.
paperbackwriter  @thotcandy Same here :(

 +8  (nbme23#8)

Ritonavir inhibits CYP450! So you can use it to boost the concentration of the other Protease inhibitors by preventing their metabolism by CYP450!

mousie  who knew
sympathetikey  Right on (thanks sketchy)
mguan1993  MAGIC RACKS is a good mnemonic ive heard for 450 inhibitors (macrolides, amiodarone, grapefruit, cimetidine, RITONAVIR, alcohol (chronic), cipro, ketoconazole, sulfa
criovoly  "CRACK AMIGOS" Cimetidine Ritonavir Amiodarone Ciprofloxacion Ketoconazole Acute alcoholism Macrolides Isoniasid Grapefruit juice Omeprazole Sulfonamides
drzed  Macrolides EXCEPT azithromycin -- they like to trick you with that one.
steatorrhea  chronic alcohol induces 450, acute alcohol inhibits 450

 +2  (nbme23#7)

Integral membrane proteins are found within the plasma membrane and span the whole length across. The inside of the membrane is very hydrophobic due to the long carbon chains. Extensive hydrophobic interactions between the protein side chain and the lipid tails will help anchor the protein in the membrane.

yb_26  O-linked glycosylation of secreted and membrane bound proteins is a post-translational event that takes place in the cis-Golgi compartment after N-glycosylation and folding of the protein

 +4  (nbme20#43)

This is mullerian agenesis. Normal ovaries but absent uterus.

endochondral   why not androgen insensitivity?
shaeking  I was wondering the same thing because doesn't androgen insensitivity also have normal female secondary characteristics. Was it the levels of hormones because she doesn't have abnormally high testosterone?
swb  Androgen insensitivity has the same presentation and symptoms. What's the clue that it is mullerian agenesis instead ?
sugaplum  Testosterone would be high if it was androgen insensitivity FA 2019 Pg 625
charcot_bouchard  Testo would be high in AIS. in AIS pubic hair, axillary hair doesnt devlop because of androgen insensitivity. both have normal breast dev and primary amenorrhea
dickass  This is not androgen insensitivity because she has perfectly normal Estradiol, which means she has perfectly normal ovaries. She also has regular female levels of testosterone.

 -1  (nbme20#41)

Other kidney Hypertrophies due to increased stress --> not hyperplasia bc not cancerous

masonkingcobra  Above answer is incorrect because hyperplasia can be either physiological or pathological. Prolonged hyperplasia can set the seed for cancerous growth however. Robbins: Stated another way, in pure hypertrophy there are no new cells, just bigger cells containing increased amounts of structural proteins and organelles. Hyperplasia is an adaptive response in cells capable of replication, whereas hypertrophy occurs when cells have a limited capacity to divide. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia also can occur together, and obviously both result in an enlarged (hypertrophic) organ.
johnthurtjr  FTR Pathoma Ch 1 Dr. Sattar mentions hyperplasia is generally the pathway to cancer, with some exceptions like the prostate and BPH.
sympathetikey  Tubular hypertrophy is the natural compensation post renal transplant. Just one of those things you have to know, unfortunately.
charcot_bouchard  Isnt Kidney a labile a tissue & thus should undergo both. This ques is dipshit
brbwhat  Dr Sattar says, kidney is a stable tissue, at least pct is as seen in ATN. But I read, basically kidneys are mostly formed whatever number of nephrons have to be formed by birth, after that they can only undergo hyperplasia aka increase in size/or regenerate if need be in case of atn. We cant have more number of nephrons.
mambaforstep  @brbwhat , do you mean kidneys can only undergo hyperTROPHY?

 +0  (nbme20#8)

Hypertension can lead to aneurysms like in this patient. Not syphilis because not thoracic aorta.

 +5  (nbme20#1)

B-HCG and LH,FSH,TSH share same alpha subunit, so HCG can activate those receptors if its in high enough quantity. Activating LH receptor will lead to more Testosterone from the Leydig cells. More testosterone can lead to more estrogen formation via aromatase.

dickass  bHCG directly increases testicular aromatase activity, it's not because of the increased amount of testosterone.
vulcania  And for those who were wondering (cause I was), Sertoli cells have aromatase (FA 2019 p. 614)

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