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All the other answer choices make you come across as an asshole. Easy way to ace ethics questions is to just not be an asshole
I would be a bigger asshole when the family came I'n after I pulled the plug...opps...but the friend said
The patient has no wife, children, or close relatives...
@lispectedwumbologist this is going to be my technique, because I've gotten a couple of these wrong, but I completely agree with everyone else's sentiments of suspicion of going off what a friend said without any confirmation about state of advance directives, etc. It's really dumb.
With these questions; you have to take what NBME says at face value. If it says no family, he really does have no family. This friend is also claiming that the 78 y/o said this about himself, so we know it's the patients wishes rather than someone else's wishes for him. (A son saying he can't let go of his father yet despite the patient's DNR type of situation).
I think the point here isn't that we would take the patient off the ventilator because the friend said so. The answer is saying "Thank you for your input, we will take that into consideration." It's completely non-committal.
Yeah the negative EtOH screen threw me off
Why cant it be early alzheimers and hippocampus? She could easily have been a former prominent physician and member of city council. Am i supposed to assume that simply because shes disheveled and poor hygeine that she must be an alcoholic homeless person? It also mentions no symptoms of nystagmus, ataxia, etc.
it said broad based gait and nystagmus
She is/was an alcoholic and appears pretty much homeless, just not drunk at this moment.
@ dr janitor. The question says "physical exam shows a broad-based gait and nystagmus."
NBME questions also stereotype the shit out of their patients
I think we're assuming that we eradicated the leukemia with the chemo. However at the same time a lot of normal stem cells were also killed off so we give GCSF to help recovery especially since they have an infection.
Also agree the narrowing of the lumen plus the pic is pointing towards Crohn's. The acute systemic sx of fever and chills is what made me go with diverticulitis (along with the hx of increasing constipation).
Why does the question say there is NARROWING OF THE LUMEN? Does that happen in diverticulitis? I went with Chron's at the last second against my better judgment because Chron's can cause strictures/narrowing of the lumen.
also remember that in renal failure, 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity is down, so there will be less activation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which is a key mechanism causing hypocalcemia.
why not increased 25-hydroxycholecalciferol?, with the same logic haliburton explain
Increased phosphate, since the kidneys aren't working well, leads to the release of fibroblast growth factor 23 from bone, which decreases calcitriol production and decreased calcium absorption. The increase in phosphate and the decrease in calcium lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Probably a dumb question but how do we definitively know that the ALP is elevated if they give us no reference range in the lab values or Q stem? Everything stated above definitely makes sense from a physiological standpoint, I was just curious.
@cr the question asked "the patient's BONE PAIN is most likely caused by which of the following?" Increased levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol might exist in that patient, but it wouldn't cause bone pain. PTH causes bone pain because of bone resorption
@privatejoker ALP is included in the standard lab values
@privatejoker ALP is listed under "Phosphatase (alkaline), serum" in the lab values
Why does AlkPhos increase in renal osteodystrophy? The PTH would be trying to stimulate bone resorption (increase osteoCLAST activity), not bone formation (osteoBLAST activity).
"live-born offspring" ← baited
why is it 50% females tho?
felt like an idiot after i figured out why i got this wrong.
This isn't exactly right as males can still be born as evidenced by individuals III 6,9,11. This basically an x-linked recessive disease. A carrier mother can still pass her normal X chromosome to a son (50% chance). It's just that the other 50% chance of passing an affected X chromosome results in death of the fetus in utero. Thus all males actually born will not be affected.
@suckitnbme, Correct, but if you're a live-born male, you 100% for sure do NOT have the disease, so the chance of a live-born male "being affected" is 0.
Chancroid is described as an ulcer.. whilst in this question they mentioned "vesicles". Pretty much only herpes is vesicular
They mentioned ulcers too. I chose chancroid as well, couldn't find a clue to rule it out. Also thought "discharge" was pointing you towards a bacterial infection. But guess I'm wrong :)
I think NBME/USMLE writers make the assumption the patient is in America unless specified otherwise. Chancroid is not common in the US. If the question stem mentions a developing country, then chancroid can make your differential list.
for chancroid, there may be a mention of inguinal lymphadenopathy
Also with chancroid questions they want you to differentiate it between chancroid and syphilis, (eg. Painful vs. painless) and is usually described as a much larger ulcer that is painful (not vesicular as in this question)
Also believe that chancroid does not presents with systemic symptoms like in this vignette.
NBME loves their scabies
So, this says sympathetic also spared and hypothalamus also spared. Then what was wrong with this clinical case??
i think the sympathetic system is actually impaired b/c it's cut before it can "outflow"...at least it's the only way this makes sense
I agree. I think the question stem is saying the sympathetics were lesioned. Not that they were spared.
I think it’s because meningiomas are able to calcify (aka sometimes they have psamomma bodies). I got this question wrong too but I totally did not completely register that the tumor was in the dura (interhemispheric fissure + central sulcus). Hope that helps!
the only reason I got this right was because they described the tumour as being near the falx cerebri.
Other hints include being described as round and seen in a female. Both indicative of Meningioma
also meningiomas typically present with seizures or focal neurological signs
I thought enhancing meant it uptakes contrast. Meningiomas are commonly enhancing lesions per Radiopaedia.
I get Parvo has tropism for RBC precursors, but wouldn’t it take 120 days to manifest?
RBCs don’t just spill out of the bone marrow every 4 months on the dot. Erythropoesis is a constant process. If you get a parvo virus on “Day 1” then the RBCs that were synthesized 120 days before “Day 1” will need to be replaced. They can’t be because of parvovirus. This leads to symptomatic anemia within 5 days because the RBCs that were synthesized 125-120 days before the infection are not being replaced.
@gainsgutsglory @keycompany It seems unlikely that “1 week” of illness can explain such a large drop in Hb. It seems more likely that parvo begins to destroy erythroid precursors LONG BEFORE it manifests clinically as “red cheeks, rash, fever,” etc. Might be overkill to do the math, but back-of-the-envelope: 7 days of 120 day lifespan -> represents ~6 percent of RBC mass. Seems unlikely that failure to replenish 6 percent of total RBC mass would result in the Hb drop observed.
He can drop from 11 to 10 hgb easily
Apologies if this is completely left-field, but I didn't think this was Parvovirus. Parvo would affect face. Notably, patient has fever and THEN rash, which is more indicative of Roseola. Thoughts??
@is2076 check my comment to @hello I thought the same thing for a sec too :)
also i think you guys are thinking of hb in adults in this q it says hb is 10g/dL(N=11-15) so it's not relatively insanely low
@Is3076 I completely agree with @hyperfukus and I think that thinking of Roseola isn't crazy, but remember that usually with Roseola you get from 3-5 days of high fever, THEN fever is completely gone accompanied by a rash. This question says that the patient has a history of 4 days of rash and 7 days of fever, but never mentioned that the fever subsided before the appearance of the rash. And Roseola is not supposed to present with anemia.
@Is3076 another point is that malar rash refers to the butterfly rash on the cheeks that is commonly seen in lupus, so the face is NOT spared.
There was a question about this in Uworld. for *stubborn* patients who are "not ready to quit" just yet you use the motivational approach. The technique acronym is OARS: Open ended questions, Affirmation, Reflect, Summarize.
Additionally the guy himself says "I know smoking is bad for me" Like he knows its bad, he doesnt care, but give him nicotine replacement and maybe he'll quit...
I didn't think nicotine replacement was a good answer choice b/c if he isn't ready to quit then why would he agree to use alternatives.
People who smoke and are addicted like the feel of the cigs and environmental ques. Using replacements would be more challenging. The second best answer choice would have been Rx.
why not detail the long-therm health effects of smoking?
@ titanesxvi: I assume because they always like the most "open ended" response.
If you start detailing the long term effects, the patient might interpret that as attempting to convince, and might resist or feel pressured. By having the patient elucidate what they consider pros and cons, you allow it to be an open discussion.
Also because the patient states he already knows smoking hurts him in the long run so it may come off as lecturing on something he already knows. I view this as what is the least-judgmental way to facilitate the patient moving on to the next step of the stages of change model largely of their own volition.
i choose the option c which is initiate a pulmunary function test. why is that a wrong choice?
Wouldn't nitrates be a faster acting drug here? That was my take-away anyway. One is more acute, the other for long term maintenance.
I also believe it's because CCBs have minimal effect on venous beds and would not cause a significant decrease on preload.
You should be able to rule it out by the normal Thrombin time. Abnormal fibrinogen would have increased PT/PTT but also increased Thrombin time because the entire pathway is compromised by the inability of fibrinogen to be cleaved to functioning fibrin.