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 +0  (nbme22#6)

hope this image help to understand it, the pumps don't work because lack of ATP





Subcomments ...

submitted by yotsubato(235),

p53 is mutated and cant bind the TATA box, so what happens to transcription of inhibitory proteins?

Is basically what this question is trying to ask...

So no TATA box promoter => Decreased binding of RNA polymerase

link981  You said it, they are "trying" to ask. Should use better grammar. +1  
titanesxvi  This is on first aid, and says that the promoter region is where RNApolymerase binds +  


submitted by enbeemee(4),

sketchy says that kaposi's has infiltrating lymphocytes, so why would large aggregates of atypical lymphocytes be incorrect?

titanesxvi  Bcz I think vascular is the key thing here, whereas atypical lynphocytes would be more of EBV +  


submitted by g8427(0),

If some one can help me understand bc im a bit confused. I understand the thought process and I realized that this was an AR disease and I also got the 1/4 affected, 1/2 carrier and 1/4 unaffected. But I chose 0% bc I figured if it was an AR disease the 1 child already diseased was homozygous affected (1/4 affected). Which lead me to think that the other sister was either a carrier or not affected at all. Am I just over thinking this or am I not fully understanding whats going on?

rush  you have to think about each child individually, doesn't matter what the siblings have. The question states what are the odds of the child getting the disease. So regardless of the other siblings it still is Mom (1/2) dad (1/2) which makes it 1/4 AR +  
titanesxvi  But how do we know that the parents are heterozygous for the mutation +  


Just note why other answers are not correct:

  1. Egophony is an increased resonance of voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs, often caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis.

    • a. It is due to enhanced transmission of high-frequency sound across fluid, such as in abnormal lung tissue, with lower frequencies filtered out.
  2. Whispered pectoriloquy refers to an increased loudness of whispering noted during auscultation with a stethoscope on the lung fields on a patient’s torso.

    • a. Usually spoken sounds of a whispered volume by the patient would not be heard by the clinician auscultating a lung field with a stethoscope.

    • b. However, in areas of the lung where there is lung consolidation, these whispered spoken sounds by the patient (such as saying ‘ninety-nine’) will be clearly heard through the stethoscope.

    • c. This increase in sound exists because sound travels faster and thus with lower loss of intensity through liquid or solid (“fluid mass” or “solid mass,” respectively, in the lung) versus gaseous (air in the lung) media.

    • d. Whispered pectoriloquy is a clinical test typically performed during a medical physical examination to evaluate for the presence of lung consolidation, which could be caused by cancer (solid mass) or pneumonia (fluid mass).

titanesxvi  why not wheezing? +  


submitted by marbledoc(0),

Why would you ask the patient to identify the pros and cons? I don’t get the approach here!

someduck3  There was a question about this in Uworld. for *stubborn* patients who are "not ready to quit" just yet you use the motivational approach. The technique acronym is OARS: Open ended questions, Affirmation, Reflect, Summarize. +2  
yotsubato  Additionally the guy himself says "I know smoking is bad for me" Like he knows its bad, he doesnt care, but give him nicotine replacement and maybe he'll quit... +1  
usmleuser007  I didn't think nicotine replacement was a good answer choice b/c if he isn't ready to quit then why would he agree to use alternatives. +  
usmleuser007  People who smoke and are addicted like the feel of the cigs and environmental ques. Using replacements would be more challenging. The second best answer choice would have been Rx. +  
titanesxvi  why not detail the long-therm health effects of smoking? +  


submitted by bobson150(3),

The wording of this question confused me. This is asking "which of these vessels is the high pressure system" right? So the high pressure superior rectal is causing increased pressure into the inferior rectal?

welpdedelp  Superior rectal comes from the inferior mesenteric vein which comes from the splenic vein --> portal veins Thus, this dude had cirrhosis so it would "back-up" into the superior rectal vein. FA 2018: p360 +5  
nc1992  Superior rectal not superior mesenteric. Took me a minute +  
hyperfukus  ugh am i ever gonna get these right EVER +2  
titanesxvi  why not the inferior mesenteric, since the superior rectal drains there +  
thomasburton  @titanesxvi think it is because question says direct which is why superior rectal +1  
lilyo  thomasburton, so are they asking what vessels do internal hemorrhoids directly drain into? The order is Superior rectal vein--> Inferior mesenteric vein--> portal vein. +  
thomasburton  Yes exactly, so they do eventually reach IMV but not 'directly' +  


submitted by sklawpirt(15),

I think the idea here is simply that one should think about where vesicles are coming from on their way to the golgi complex.

"Two steps forward and one step back." Specfically the question may be referring to a rare craniofacial disorder. an awarenesss of that disease is not necessary. What is necessary is understanding the origin from where vesicles are traficked to the Golgi apparatus.

COPI protein is needed to coat vescles from the RER to send to golgi. Thus, with a mutation in that protein, the packaged proteins that should bleb off and be sent to the golgi, instead accumulate in the RER and dilate it. Thus the answer.

https://www.cell.com/ajhg/pdf/S0002-9297(16)30214-2.pdf

hayayah  pg. 47 on FA got the good visuals! +1  
notadoctor  COPII* proteins are needed to coat vesicles from the RER to Golgi. "Two(COPII) steps forward; one(COPI) step back." Anterograde goes RER -> Golgi -> Lysosomes/Secretory Vesicles -> Plasma membrane +4  
titanesxvi  why not small lysosomes? +  
varunmehru  and I thought large lysosomes due to lack of enzymes to degrade +