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 +0  (nbme21#14)

The mother has autoimmune thyroiditis and treatment is given for hypothyroidism only. why does it matter if the mother's TSH is high or low? Autoantibodies would still be present and they would always cause cretinism irrespective of mother hormones level. Isn't it?

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submitted by sugaplum(50),

This question is asking about VDJ rearrangement which happens in the bone marrow. The genes are all chopped up because the B cell is trying to generate a unique combination for its receptor
simple concepts... odd wording

Chapter 3 of "how the immune system works" - awesome book

varunmehru  in the question stem, they are asking about a constant region. VDJ rearrangement is for the variable. It doesn't make sense :( +  

submitted by sklawpirt(15),

I think the idea here is simply that one should think about where vesicles are coming from on their way to the golgi complex.

"Two steps forward and one step back." Specfically the question may be referring to a rare craniofacial disorder. an awarenesss of that disease is not necessary. What is necessary is understanding the origin from where vesicles are traficked to the Golgi apparatus.

COPI protein is needed to coat vescles from the RER to send to golgi. Thus, with a mutation in that protein, the packaged proteins that should bleb off and be sent to the golgi, instead accumulate in the RER and dilate it. Thus the answer.


hayayah  pg. 47 on FA got the good visuals! +1  
notadoctor  COPII* proteins are needed to coat vesicles from the RER to Golgi. "Two(COPII) steps forward; one(COPI) step back." Anterograde goes RER -> Golgi -> Lysosomes/Secretory Vesicles -> Plasma membrane +4  
titanesxvi  why not small lysosomes? +  
varunmehru  and I thought large lysosomes due to lack of enzymes to degrade +