It's transitional cell carcinoma, which smoking is a common risk factor for; it can involve the renal pelvis/calyces. The histo image shows the papillary nature of the tumor (however it can also be flat or nodular according to Pathoma).
Also known as urothelial carcinoma. Most common tumor of urinary tract system (can occur in renal calyces, renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder). Can be suggested by painless hematuria (no casts).
Cigarette smoking is major risk factor (50-80% of cancers, risk associated with duration and intensity)
Also arylamines (2-naphthylamine) and aniline dyes
In developing countries, Schistosoma haematobium ova are deposited in bladder wall and cause chronic inflammation, squamous metaplasia, dysplasia; 70% of tumors are squamous cell carcinoma
HPV may cause condyloma, squamous dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma sequence
Phenacetin use (usually long term use in younger women, tumors involve upper collecting system)
Chronic urinary tract infection and calculi
Rarely cyclophosphamide with long term use
Is this the one with the poor kidney that was cut in half against its will and has a dilated distal ureter? If so, probably showing us transitional carcinoma with mild invasion into that distal ureter. Pathoma does a pretty awesome job of talking about GU cancers (and most cancers) ((and most medicine)) IMO.
This is LITERALLY the same photo they used to describe the 4-year-old boy with diffuse cortical necrosis from NBME 18. Can someone explain what's going on here