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Comments ...

 +2  (nbme23#4)

https://malariaworld.org/blog/glucose-and-malaria

I think we're thinking too hard on this. The parasites are consuming all our sugar! So simple that it's hard.





Subcomments ...

submitted by aladar50(15),

So there’s 100 residents, and the prevalence after 2 years is =10 at the beginning, +5 in the first year, +10 second year, and -3 that healed, for a total prevalence of 22 residents or 22/100=22 percent. Thus, prevalence = above the standard. For incidence, it’s 15 new cases out of 90 residents over the 2 years (100 total residents – 10 that already had ulcers), or 15 new ulcers per 180 patient⋅years. This would be 83.3 new ulcers per 1000 patient⋅years if you extrapolated it out -- basically (1000/180) * 15 -- thus, incidence = above the standard.

zelderonmorningstar  Okay I feel like an idiot cause I thought: Above the Standard = Doing a good job keeping old people from getting ulcers. Thumbs up. Below the Standard = I wouldn’t let my worst enemy into your ulcer ridden elder abuse shack. +6  
aladar50  @zelderon Ohh damn. I could totally see how one could view the answer choices that way. I think it is important to read how they are phrased - they are asking if the center is above THE standard or below THE standard. The “standard” is an arbitrary set point, and the results of the study are either above or below that cut off. Maybe if it was “above/below standards” that would work. Also, being above the standard could either be a good thing or bad thing. If say you were talking about qualifying for a competition and you have to do 50 push ups in a minute, then being above=good and below=bad. In this case, having more ulcers than the standard = bad. +1  
saynomore  @aladar Thank you!!! but how did you get the 15 new ulcers per 180 patient⋅years? I mean I understand the 15 part, but not the second part ... hence why I messed this up, lol :| +  
aladar50  @saysomore Because the study is looking at 100 residents over a period of 2 years. Since 10 already had the disease at the start, when looking at incidence you only include the subjects that have /the potential/ of developing the disease, so 90 patients over 2 years. This would be 90 patient⋅years per year, or a total of 180 patient⋅years over the course of the study. +2  
sympathetikey  @zelderonmorningstar I thought the same exact thing. Had the right logic, but then just put the backwards answer. +1  
kai  I wonder if they chose this wording on purpose just to fuck with us or if this was accidental. My guess is there's some evil doctor twirling his thumbs somewhere thinking you guys are below the standard. +4  


Trihexphenidyl and Benztropine are antimuscarinics that can treat the resting tremor and rigidity of parkinsonism.

mousie  haloperidol induced Parkinson's... ? adding a anticholinergic can counter these adverse effects of the antipsychotic .. ? +1  
fulminant_life  @mousie yeah it balances the dopamine-cholinergic imbalance caused by the antipsychotics +  
kai  +So antipsychotics induce Extrapyramidal side effects which is drug induced Parkinson = low Dopamine High Ach, and you would treat this with anticholinergic (Benztropine).This is neurologic. +Antipsychotics also produce non-neurologic, systemic anti-cholinergic effects like dry mouth, sedation, hypotension etc +  


submitted by cbrodo(12),

The posterior columns (Fasciculus cuneatus/Fasciculus gracilis) carry information to the brain regarding proprioception, vibration, discriminative touch and pressure. Physical exam findings suggest a lesion here (the spinothalamic tract carries pinprick/pain and temperature, and these were normal). Since the patient has abnormal findings in the lower extremities, and normal findings in the upper extremities, the answer is Fasciculus gracilis. This is because information from body areas below the level of T6 is carried by gracilis and information from body areas above the level of T6 is carried by cuneatus.

kai  kick Goals (gracilis) with your feet Cook and eat (cuneatus) with your hands +2  
temmy  i remember gracilis is for legs by saying i have graciously long legs and they are inside while arms can spread out to remember their orientation on the spinal cord +  
jess123  I remember it as gracilis = grass so feet haha +  
link981  Just to add found on page 492 on FA 2018. +  
charcot_bouchard  Hey Temmy, I can spread my legs too :) +  
maxillarythirdmolar  I can't feel GRACIE's ~fine touch~ as she ~vibrates~ my balls. +  


submitted by sajaqua1(169),

MHC I function is integral to cancer suppression. MHC I displays endogenously synthesized proteins and presents them to CD8+ T cells. The failure to display MHC I, or MHC I display of non-self (and by extension cancerous) proteins triggers a cellular immune response, leading to destruction of the cell.

The proteasome is used for the degradation of worn out, senescent, or malformed proteins. As cancer develops, more mutations lead to increased wrong proteins. Only by expression of the proteasome, or its over-expression, can these mutant proteins be degraded fast enough to not be displayed by MHC I and lead to the cell being killed. Bortezomib blocks the proteasome, so the mutant proteins are displayed on the surface, allowing the immune system to recognize and kill pathological cells.

catch-22  Another way to approach it is to think about MHC class I processing. Basically, if you inhibit the proteasome, peptides will not be generated and nothing is available to be loaded onto MHC I (remember MHC I has to be loaded before it's transported to the cell surface). Cells that don't express MHC I get killed by the natural killers. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2214736/ +6  
kai  "In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib down-regulates class I and enhances the sensitivity of myeloma to NK cell–mediated lysis" from the conclusion of the NIH paper +3  


submitted by sympathetikey(251),

Per FA (pg. 636): Concerning breast cancer...

"Amplification/overexpression of estrogen/ progesterone receptors or c-erbB2 (HER2, an EGF receptor) is common; ER ⊝, PR ⊝, and HER2/neu ⊝ form more aggressive."

sympathetikey  FA 2019 +  
meningitis  Why others not it: Anticipation: Trinucleotide repeats; CAG (Huntington), CTG (Myotonic dyst), GAA (ataxia telangiectasia), CGG(Fragile X) Chromosomal rearrangement: Many but can think of Trisomy 21, BCR-Abl, etc Imprinting: Prader willi, angelman Loss of heterozygosity: loss of a single parent's contribution to part of its genome. A common occurrence in cancer, it often indicates the presence of tumor suppressor gene in the lost region. +  
kai  trinucleotide repeats are not associated with breast cancer Neither are chromosomal rearrangements BRCA1,2 tumor supressor genes are associated with breast cancer, which is why I chose E, but I guess I should have bought the new First Aid.......... +  
charcot_bouchard  GAA is Freidrich Ataxia +