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Recent comments (see more)

... cassdawg made a comment (free120)
 +0  submitted by cassdawg(1702)

This is a tricky question. The another big point of confusion here is that sweat actually causes a hyperosmotic volume contraction. This occurs because the content of sweat is composed primarily of water more so than salt. With that said, its unlikely that this patient will be hyponatremic. If anything she will be hypernatremic.

-Billy Rubin

... angelbarrera made a comment (nbme16)
 +0  submitted by angelbarrera(1)

Abnormal phagolysosome fusion in pulmonary alveolar macrophages of rats exposed chronically to cigarette smoke.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6206755/#:~:text=Cigarette%20smoking%20is%20strongly%20associated%20with%20functional%20and,antimicrobial%20activity%20of%20these%20cells%20might%20be%20diminished.

... imgdoc made a comment (nbme23)
 +0  submitted by imgdoc(161)

Differences between Naked and Enveloped viruses:

IS THE VIRUS: Inactivated by heat, detergents, acid and organic solvents like ether and alcohols?

YES = ENVELOPED, the lipid envelope basically holds the proteins needed to attach to the human cells, by dissolving the envelope, the virus loses its ability to infect and therefore survive.

NO = NAKED

Got this from Kaplan

... peteralamir made a comment (nbme20)
 +0  submitted by peteralamir(1)

o Greater Splanchnic (T5-T10)= Symp innervation foregut o Lesser Splanchnic (T9-T12)= Symp to hindgut o Vagus nerve= Parasymp of proximal GI system until splenic flexure o Pelvic Splanchnic (S2-S4)= Parasymp to bowel and bladder

Heres a summary of the Autonmomics of that area!

... freemanpeng made a comment (nbme22)
 +0  submitted by freemanpeng(1)

Firstly, I chose ADH. When I thought twice in review, I picked crossed ADH and picked ANP. My logic to cross ADH: 1. The main inducer of ADH are Osm and BP/vlomue. THis pt, Osm obviously not high, Bp obviously not low. So, nonsense in increased ADH. 2.You may see AngII also induces ADH. But it seems to be a minor inducer. Meanwhile, if it is exactly high AngII→ high ADH. Then, Aldo must be high as well, and High Aldo →Salt preserving→ HOW CAN serum Sodium be LOW? "Low Cardiac output→ High RASS (AngII Aldo ADH)" pathway is WATER-SODIUM retention. NOT pure WATER retention Please correct me

... hgandler made a comment (nbme20)
 +0  submitted by hgandler(1)

Meningiomas most often occur near the surfaces of the brain, especially the parasaggital regions. They are often asymptomatic, and grossly it appears as a round mass attached to dura. It will compress the cortex (explaining the headaches), but it will not invade. They are also the most common primary benign CNS tumor. Women are more commonly affected, which is supported by the vignette.

Other answers:

A: Astrocytomas are usually found in the posterior fossa, and are the most common primary CNS tumor in children

B: Glioblastoma multiforme is usually seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and shows signs of necrosis and hemorrhage.

C: Melanoma can metastasize to the brain, but this would likely form in multiple spots, and they would not be outside of the parenchyma

E: Squamous epithelial would similarly be metastasis and therefore also be multiple lesions inside the parenchyma

Some notes
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Help your fellow humans! (see more)

madamestep asks (nbme23):
Remember that medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is medullary. So it's between the follicles. What's between the follicles in the thyroid? C cells that secrete calcitonin. help answer!
daplatesofmetal asks (nbme23):
What is TARNATION is going on here!? help answer!
freemanpeng asks (nbme21):
Can anyone explain what "diplopia" implies? I got sutck by"these clinical findings" (thinking upward gaze+ diplopia....) Or is "Diplopia" just a unspecific word in exam?? help answer!
madamestep asks (nbme21):
Why don't we see a decrease in the size of the prostate gland? Is it a difference between atrophy vs. apoptosis? help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme21):
ATTENTION DEFICIT- hyperactivity disorder. how do we improve the attention deficit in that kid ? by increasing dopamine and norepi levels in the brain. dopamine and norepi= biogenic amines funstory. newyork times once reported abuse of stimulants by students so they can have an academic advantage by improving attention help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme21):
low retic count= marrow not working . what can explain this ? parvo virus affecting the hematopoetic stem cells , hence the low retic count, think of the low retic count of giving a picture of a failing marrow help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme21):
here is a copy pasted link . first, high tsh = hypothyroidism How can hypothyroidism affect me and my baby? thyroid hormones are important to your baby's brain and nervous system development, untreated hypothyroidism—especially during the first trimester—can cause low IQ and problems with normal development. help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme21):
what is collagen ? a secondary protein structure. when you remove glycine, the most abundant amino acid , from the precursor molecule will you get a proper secondary structure ? NO help answer!
unknown001  ignore this +
drdoom  can you elaborate? what's wrong with your comment? +
blue4415 asks (nbme16):
A discontinue consumption of all alcoholic beverages is wrong; Is that because what She drinks is wine ? Not take it as alcohol? help answer!
cassdawg asks (nbme22):
If the patient is taking calcium acetate (a phosphate binder), why is his phosphorus level increased? help answer!
charcot_bouchard asks (step2ck_free120):
why not prophylactic anitbiotics? help answer!
akjs16  That bothered me, too. According to Cecil, Prevention throught vaccination is the best option for the long-term control of meningococcal disease. Chemoprophylaxis can only control localized outbreaks. There must be some articles, but I'm too lazy to find them. +
charcot_bouchard asks (step2ck_form8):
Why cant this taken as sexual health? help answer!
charcot_bouchard asks (step2ck_form8):
Why cant this taken as sexual health? help answer!
jda2674 asks (step2ck_form6):
So we're expecting a topical retinoic acid to clear her acute acne within 3 weeks? don't topical retinoids cause purging often? help answer!
blue4415 asks (nbme21):
can Gonadotrophs “hyperplasia” rather than hypertrophy? help answer!
kevinsinghkang  wondering the same +
escherichia95  Hormonal stimulation will lead to production of new cells from stem cells i.e. hyperplasia. Hypertrophy is gene activation, protein synthesis and production of organelles. +
unknown001 asks (nbme24):
how to rule out iron def. ? iron is absorbed in deodenum and proximal jejunum . b12 in ileum. this will give you the answer help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme24):
dont be distracted with timing. both can start within minutes. how to rule out ? anaphylaxis lung finding > WHEEZE. (question stem = no wheeze) help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme24):
this is a bonus question. when odds ratio is 1, meaning no association, odds ratio> 1, whihc in this question is 6, means association where is odds ratio ? a) at the ate cookie-didnot drink milk column. hence the answer, only cookie independently ass. with e coli help answer!
unknown001 asks (nbme24):
RESOURCE : CDC Malaria species: P. vivax 93%, P. falciparum 7%. WHY HYPNOZOYES ? 2 reasons
  1. schuffner stippling ( that wierd cell with lots of blue glitters)
  2. HONDURAS ( 93 percent are vivax)
help answer!
jatsyuk38 asks (nbme21):
doesn't IFN-gamma upregulate MHCII? Which would activate T lymphocytes to produce cytokines? I do get why macrophages is the better answer, but didn't understand what IL-1 had to do with anything... help answer!
lilmonkey asks (step2ck_form6):
Small Cell - Central. SIADH. Squamous Cell - Central. PTHrP. Adeno - Peripheral. Clubbing (EGF). Carcinoid - Bronchi? Flushing (Serotonin). help answer!
forkyeaa asks (nbme21):
why is the MCV elevated in this question when it's supposed to be normocytic non hemolytic aplastic anemia? help answer!
kstudy asks (step2ck_form8):
this is a great example of why I struggle with this silly nbme and steps. Are we testing knowledge here or semantics? help answer!

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