This is a tricky question. The another big point of confusion here is that sweat actually causes a hyperosmotic volume contraction. This occurs because the content of sweat is composed primarily of water more so than salt. With that said, its unlikely that this patient will be hyponatremic. If anything she will be hypernatremic.
Abnormal phagolysosome fusion in pulmonary alveolar macrophages of rats exposed chronically to cigarette smoke.
Differences between Naked and Enveloped viruses:
IS THE VIRUS: Inactivated by heat, detergents, acid and organic solvents like ether and alcohols?
YES = ENVELOPED, the lipid envelope basically holds the proteins needed to attach to the human cells, by dissolving the envelope, the virus loses its ability to infect and therefore survive.
NO = NAKED
Got this from Kaplan
o Greater Splanchnic (T5-T10)= Symp innervation foregut o Lesser Splanchnic (T9-T12)= Symp to hindgut o Vagus nerve= Parasymp of proximal GI system until splenic flexure o Pelvic Splanchnic (S2-S4)= Parasymp to bowel and bladder
Heres a summary of the Autonmomics of that area!
Firstly, I chose ADH. When I thought twice in review, I picked crossed ADH and picked ANP. My logic to cross ADH: 1. The main inducer of ADH are Osm and BP/vlomue. THis pt, Osm obviously not high, Bp obviously not low. So, nonsense in increased ADH. 2.You may see AngII also induces ADH. But it seems to be a minor inducer. Meanwhile, if it is exactly high AngII→ high ADH. Then, Aldo must be high as well, and High Aldo →Salt preserving→ HOW CAN serum Sodium be LOW? "Low Cardiac output→ High RASS (AngII Aldo ADH)" pathway is WATER-SODIUM retention. NOT pure WATER retention Please correct me
Meningiomas most often occur near the surfaces of the brain, especially the parasaggital regions. They are often asymptomatic, and grossly it appears as a round mass attached to dura. It will compress the cortex (explaining the headaches), but it will not invade. They are also the most common primary benign CNS tumor. Women are more commonly affected, which is supported by the vignette.
A: Astrocytomas are usually found in the posterior fossa, and are the most common primary CNS tumor in children
B: Glioblastoma multiforme is usually seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and shows signs of necrosis and hemorrhage.
C: Melanoma can metastasize to the brain, but this would likely form in multiple spots, and they would not be outside of the parenchyma
E: Squamous epithelial would similarly be metastasis and therefore also be multiple lesions inside the parenchyma