So I was between L4 and S1 radiculopathies on this one and couldn't remember the sensory/motor/reflex losses that differentiated the two. Here's a summary (including L5 for completeness)
This is Paget-Schroetter disease
An upper extremity thrombosis triggered by extreme activity.
He's a fit young jackhammerer just trying to do his jackhammer thing
With treatment adherence, most HIV-positive individuals will die of the same things as the rest of us: the American way of life.
This is a diffuse pontine glioma, a death sentence. You don’t really need to know that, because the stem tells you of the poor prognosis. Whenever someone is presented with a serious diagnosis, any treatment discussion starts with establishing a baseline understanding of the disease process and then discussing goals of care.