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 +0  (nbme20#5)

https://imgur.com/a/lCFnj1e FA19 P489 Cerebral cortex regions


 +0  (nbme20#12)

what to do with the NONADHERIANT BADDIES???

Intention to treat, "i had the intention to treat so i am gonna leave in this group no matter what"

as treated , "he is not treated as it is so im gonna change his group to control"

per protocol, "you are fired from all of it, protocols bitch"


 +0  (nbme20#17)

FA19 P592: Renovascular disease: Renal impairment due to ischemia from renal artery stenosis or microvascular disease.  renal perfusion (one or both kidneys) Ž INC renin Ž INC angiotensin Ž HTN. Main causes of renal artery stenosis: ƒ Atherosclerotic plaques—proximal 1/3rd of renal artery, usually in older males, smokers. ƒ Fibromuscular dysplasia—distal 2/3rd of renal artery or segmental branches, usually young or middle-aged females. Clinically, patients can have refractory HTN with negative family history of HTN, asymmetric renal size, epigastric/flank bruits. Most common cause of 2° HTN in adults. Other large vessels are often involved

FA19 P 596: Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril. mEChANism Inhibit ACE Ž DECR AT II Ž DECR GFR by preventing constriction of efferent arterioles. INCR renin due to loss of negative feedback.


 +0  (nbme20#3)

this question is gramatically wrong, just move on. i did not and wasted maybe 5 minutes. just know that when you decrease chol. , there is no chol. left, so LDL regulating people open more receptors to balance the chol. back to its normal.

md_caffeiner  and if you dont even remember what makes what, just know that when ldl is getting into the cell via ldl r., it is going directly to make some chol.

 +0  (nbme20#33)

Easy AF explanation for doing mitoch. q's: Mothers have diseased children; Fathers don't

Dont forget this trick.





Subcomments ...

submitted by medbitch94(8),

Actinic purpura results from extravasation of blood into the dermis. This phenomenon is due to the skin atrophy and the fragility of the blood vessels in elderly individuals, which is exacerbated by chronic sun exposure. Actinic purpura lesions are located on sun-exposed areas, like the arms, face, and neck.

Skin atrophy in dermatoporosis is due to an alteration of collagen, similar to that which is seen in osteoporosis. This pronounced skin atrophy caused by the photo-aging makes the dermal vascular network very sensitive to the slightest trauma or shearing force.

md_caffeiner  Google actinic purpura, look through 5-10 images, and you get the idea. +  


submitted by hayayah(399),

GnRH agonists like Leuprolide are effective for patients with breast CA because if given in a continuous fashion, they downregulate the GnRH receptor in the pituitary and ultimately decrease FSH and LH.

md_caffeiner  Quick question: FA19 691 says Leuprolide ClINICAl USE is Uterine fibroids, endometriosis, precocious puberty, prostate cancer, infertility... I guess all except infetility(pulsatile?) are used as continuous? +  


submitted by xxabi(91),

Vinca and plant alkaloids bind B-tubulin, which inhibits the formation or disassembly or microtubules, respectively.

md_caffeiner  Vinca is a plant alkaloid and it has vinblastin, vincristine, which bind β-tubulin and inhibit its polymerization into microtubules Paclitaxel hyperstabilizes and prevents breakdown, its not a Vinca alkaloid. (FA+Wikipedia) +  
md_caffeiner  What I mean is they are both derived from plants. +  


submitted by xxabi(91),

Vinca and plant alkaloids bind B-tubulin, which inhibits the formation or disassembly or microtubules, respectively.

md_caffeiner  Vinca is a plant alkaloid and it has vinblastin, vincristine, which bind β-tubulin and inhibit its polymerization into microtubules Paclitaxel hyperstabilizes and prevents breakdown, its not a Vinca alkaloid. (FA+Wikipedia) +  
md_caffeiner  What I mean is they are both derived from plants. +  


submitted by dickass(10),

Paclitaxel hyperstabilizes polymerized microtubules (made up of alpha- and beta- tubulin)

md_caffeiner  And clinical use is in breast and ovarian CA (FA19 433) +  


submitted by hayayah(399),

The only time you transfuse a Jehovah's Witness patient is when the patient is a minor (<18 years old).

medstudent65  I get why the answer is not to proceed but simply stating at admissions you dont want blood products means nothing without proper paperwork being signed. +  
md_caffeiner  @medstudent65 From what I recall paperwork is needed for example: if the pt is unconscious and wife says that he is Jehovah's Witness. +  


submitted by xxabi(91),

Bile salts help dissolve gallstones that have formed in the gallbladder, used in patients refractory to surgery or prefer to avoid it.

xxabi  To add, bile salts are amphipathic which allows for the emulsification and solubilization of lipids in an aqueous environmen +2  
md_caffeiner  To add more for people like me who dont even know what amphipathic means:, am·phi·path·ic /ˌamfəˈpaTHik/ (of a molecule, especially a protein) having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts +  


submitted by nwinkelmann(94),

This explains it really well with a picture: https://www.med.illinois.edu/m2/pathology/PathAtlasf/Atlas01.html.

Hydropic change = one of the early signs of cellular degeneration in response to injury that results in accumulation of water in the cell. Hypoxia/ischemia leads to decease in aerobic respiration in the mitochondria and decreased ATP production due to failure of the Na+/K+ ATPase leading to Na+ and water diffusion into the cell. Individual tubule cells appear swollen and "empty" with almost occluded lumen, glomerulus is hypercellular.

dickass  it's basically from pathoma chapter 1: cellular injury causes swelling +1  
md_caffeiner  @dickass you why arent you on every q stem? +  


this question is gramatically wrong, just move on. i did not and wasted maybe 5 minutes. just know that when you decrease chol. , there is no chol. left, so LDL regulating people open more receptors to balance the chol. back to its normal.

md_caffeiner  and if you dont even remember what makes what, just know that when ldl is getting into the cell via ldl r., it is going directly to make some chol. +  


submitted by rio19111(3),

Diagnosis: Pneumomediastinum (FA 2019, 659)

+Hamman Sign=Crepitus on cardiac auscultation

Etiology: spontaneous (due to rupture of pulmonary bleb) or 2° (eg, trauma, iatrogenic, Boerhaave syndrome).

md_caffeiner  also look on FA 667 traumatic pnx where it says "rib fracture" +