weoreNh heav I ebne laeb to nfdi wyh hte hell iths is a hgtn.i
aljoGn dha a erteulc atth eoimdennt tath "If a tiepnta ash araarhloe,tgc everiw eeryv gdru t'heyre gaiktn nsiec ynma dsgur euacs rgalao.tceha"r
heT onyl itnhg of isslpobe eenacrevl ni ihst -stmeQ is ttah she eskat a idcmat,oien reotrfhee eht esnwra of udr"g t"fefec is the toms yliekl arneso orf her aher.tcaoaglr
As an ,i1e:0d 010t8 peeplo redoterp to avhe dies feftsec hwne kgnati zhgeiAHcmotod oihadlroyr.n tem,h 52 eppleo )%0.2(0 heva sreBat chdergasi
Pathoma gives the three major causes of galactorrhea as nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs (see 16.1 - Breast Pathology). Only drug effect is an answer choice for this question.
To put another way - before you try to go through every answer choice, asking yourself "would this cause galactorrhea?" Instead, ask yourself, "What are the causes of galactorrhea?" According to Dr. Sattar, they are "nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs."
The question doesn't say anything that would point you toward nipple stimulation, like "it only seems to appear when she puts on a shirt/plays sports/runs/etc."† So you can rule out nipple stimulation.
It also makes no mention of bitemporal blindness (which would point you to an anterior pituitary tumor), so you can rule out prolactinoma. The only option left is drug effect.
†I've never seen anything like this on a question but I assume the NBME would word it in some convoluted way like that.
I initially wrote this as a subcomment, but I feel like it deserves its own comment. I was never really satisfied with any of the explanations for this problem, and I finally arrived at one that makes the most sense to me.
One more thing: Pathoma specifically says cancer is NOT a cause of galactorrhea.
So the people who are saying you can rule out cancer because it's bilateral are completely wrong. You rule out cancer because it doesn't cause galactorrhea.
Besides, breast cancer can be bilateral. Bilateral breast cancer is almost always invasive lobular carcinoma.
This is analogous to serous cystadenocarcinoma. Bilateral ovarian cancer is almost always serous cystadenocarcinoma.
Idk how this "breast cancer can't be bilateral" myth started propagating.
" ehOrt escassl fo iecsntiaodm hatt eusca errlcaeatpypnihimo udlicen rdnestaeassin,pt ietraysnitehevnp net,ags nad udsrg htta esraince olweb tol.yiitm mpcoeHiayrptierlan uecsad yb oaiidnsctme is cymlomno msoctima,tpy nugcisa alr,craogteha saurlntem ucsn,eibtadr adn m.eicnopte tI is pnoattmrI to enseur atht aarimcyteleorhppni ni an Iaiddnivlu tpaiten is eud to idcntaemoi adn ton to a stctuaulrr sonlie ni hte pprtylhaoia/iactthiymu ar;ea shti acn eb shiplcmecdoa by 1() ngtoppsi eht odanicimte mproyielrat ot eernmidet rwtheeh octnplari sllvee rrtuen to n,oalmr )(2 tcsgnihwi ot a ecotdniima that sedo otn ceuas nliitphraepyacoemr "
n"otoepnedes-N-eddn eisd secftef — ghoAutlh oowsd-el htpeyar mssee to niizmmei the taicomble nitpcsmilcaoo ienddcu yb a zadtehii or tlad-hizeikei cdte,riiu it yma ton reeicnsalsy ieetlamni horte deis .csteffe As na xmalee,p as namy sa 52 ntcepre of nme redttea htiw 52 yg/dma of elanldhrochoti ovepdel a edenicl ni lauxse nifucnto 3].4[ eSelp dntreiabcuss acn lsao cu,orc cuyirtrlapal fi the aepnitt is no a osl-iwdomu ited ]4[.3 owH ehset rlebmops uccor si ont knwon".
Process of elimination is the only way to get this answer without Savant levels of autism, as some bowtie wearing doucher who wrote the question probably has.
Cancer is unilateral almost all the time, DM doesn't make sense for any reason, HTN itself wouldn't cause milky boobs, and mast cells degranulating doesn't make milky boobs either. So, and because many drugs can have milky boobs, you're left with drug effects by process of elimination.
Thiazides reduce GFR -> Reduced clearance of prolactin -> hyperpolactinemia -> discharge.
Not sure how correct that is, but aside from cancer being unilateral, I would associate high prolactin with loss of dopamine inhibition/reduced clearance of prolactin itself.
Tzashedii nac ecuas ctuae sealttnriiit irtshp,ine a mrfo of ranle .afureil Wtutohi the anerl etciroxne of rtlpi,noac ti nac dilub pu ni the rumes and rsluet in aahr.etrcgloa
If hte pt is akntgi a eztiihad cw(hih si K egn)dtipe,l ti gthmi ehav slao been vnige twhi a K nagsrip udrg chsu sa ena.rilcopintso
operntcnSoalii ash oidcgnronceoil efetfsc husc sa iaatnsmcogey adn oatarclheagr.